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Define Tradition, Authority, and Trial and Error
- Tradition - inherent knowledge that is passed through generations and is usually accepted without question
- Authority - A person or group of people who have become so reputable within their field or niche that many consult them for advice and usually accept this advice without question
- Trial and Error - methodically evaluating the outcomes of trials until a satisfactory method for solving a problem is found
Define Logical, deductive, and inductive reasoning
- Logical Reasoning - solving a problem via personal experience, intellectual faculty, and formal systems of thought.
- Deductive Reasoning - Accepting a broad premise and then inferring a hypothesis based on specific cases. For example, 1. Impaired postural stability results in falls (broad premise) 2. Exercise improves postural stability (many cases with similar outcomes) 3. Therefore, exercise will decrease the risk of falls (inferred hypothesis)
- Inductive Reasoning - Developing a broad premise from specific observations (the opposite of deductive reasoning) For example, We observe that patients who exercise do not fall, and that those who do not exercise fall more often. (two specific observations) We might then conclude that exercise will improve postural stability (a broad generalization)
Define the scientific method
- Systematic, empirical, controlled and critical examination of hypothetical propositions about the
- associations among natural phenomena.
Are hypotheses ever proven?
What is phase 1 of the research process?
Identify the research question (identify the research problem, review the literature and form theoretical framework, identify variables, state hypotheses)
Define phase 2 of the research process
Design the study (design the protocol and choose a sample)
Define phase 3 of the research process
Methods. Collect data and reduce it down to presentable and unbiased statistics, and then analyze those statistics
Define phase 4 of the research process
Data Analysis. Interpret your findings
Define the fifth phase of research
Communication. Report findings and suggestions for further study
What are the components of the research question? What are the definitions of these components?
population (group of individuals to which the results of the study will apply), rationale (logical argument that shows how and why the question was developed), theoretical framework (explains the constructs and mechanisms behind the question), variables - operational definitions (defines a variable according to it's unique meaning within a study), independent and dependent variables, research objectives, and hypothesis (the guess statement that is being tested)