chapter 2 pt1

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Karatinah
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33767
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chapter 2 pt1
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2010-09-16 06:07:55
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chapter 2 pt1
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  1. Matter
    Anything that has mass and occupies space
  2. States of matter:
    • Solid—definite shape and volume
    • Liquid—definite volume, changeable shape
    • Gas—changeable shape and volume
  3. Energy
    to do work or put matter into motion
  4. Types of energy:
    • Kinetic—energy in action
    • Potential—inactive energy
  5. Forms of Energy
    • Chemical energy—stored in bonds of chemical substances
    • Electrical energy—results from movement of charged particles
    • Mechanical energy—directly involved in moving matter
    • Radiant or electromagnetic energy—exhibits wavelike properties (i.e., visible light, ultraviolet light, and X-rays)
  6. Energy Form Conversions
    • Energy may be converted from one form to another
    • Conversion is inefficient because some energy is “lost” as heat
  7. Elements
    • Cannot be broken down by ordinary chemical means
    • Each has unique properties:
    • Physical properties
    • Are detectable with our senses, or are measurable
    • Chemical properties
    • How atoms interact (bond) with one another
  8. Major Elements of the Human Body
    • Oxygen (O)
    • Carbon (C)
    • Hydrogen (H)
    • Nitrogen (N)
  9. Lesser Elements of the Human Body
    • About 3.9% of body mass:
    • Calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), sulfur (S), sodium (Na), chlorine (Cl), magnesiumAtomic Structure (Mg), iodine (I), and iron (Fe)
  10. Atoms
    • Unique building blocks for each element
    • Atomic symbol: one- or two-letter chemical shorthand for each element
  11. Atomic Structure
    • Determined by numbers of subatomic particles
    • Nucleus consists of neutrons and protons
  12. Neutrons
    • No charge
    • Mass = 1 atomic mass unit (amu)
  13. Protons
    • Positive charge
    • Mass = 1 amu
  14. Electrons
    • Orbit nucleus
    • Equal in number to protons in atom
    • Negative charge Planetary model—oversimplified, outdated model
    • Incorrectly depicts fixed circular electron paths
    • Useful for illustrations (as in the text)
    • 1/2000 the mass of a proton (0 amu)
  15. Orbital model: current model used by chemists
    • Depicts probable regions of greatest electron density (an electron cloud)
    • Useful for predicting chemical behavior of atoms
  16. CHapter 2 part2
  17. Metabolism
    all chemical reactions that occur in body cells….
  18. Catabolism
    chemical reactions that breakdown large food molecules into small chemical units in order to release energy
  19. Anabolism
    chemical reactions that join simple molecules to form biomolecules

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