Biology Vocab. Chapter 2

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Biology Vocab. Chapter 2
2010-09-09 22:35:51
biology vocab

Biology Vocabulary of Chapter 2
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  1. Element
    Simplest form of an substance; cannot be broken down into simpler substances
  2. Diatomic Elements
    Compounds covanlently bonded having two atoms of the same element

    Ex: H2, N2, O2, F2, Cl2, Br2, I2
  3. Compound
    A substance made up of atoms of two or more different elements joined by chemical bonds
  4. Molecule
    The smallest unit of a substance that keeps all of the physical and chemical properties of that substance; can consist of one atom or two or more atoms bonded together

    Ex: A molecule is the result of a covalent bond between two nonmetals (CO2)
  5. Ion
    An atom, radical, or molecule that has gained or lost one of more electrons and has a negative or positive charge

    Ions are charged atoms and can form crystals, like salt.
  6. Cohesion
    The force that holds molecules of a single material together
  7. Adhesion
    The attractive force between two bodies of different substances that are in contact with each other
  8. Solution
    A homogeneous mixture of two or more substances uniformly dispersed throughout a single phase.

    Review solute and solvent, and remember a solute can be a solid, liquid, or gas.
  9. Acid
    Any compound that increases the number of hydronium ions when dissolved in water; acids turn blue litmus paper red and react with bases and some metals to form salts
  10. Base
    Any compound that increases the number of hydroxide ions when dissolved in water; bases turn red litmus paper blue and react with acids to form salts
  11. Carbohydrate
    Any organic compound that is made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen and that provides nutrients to the cells of living things

    (Hint: Say CHO) Ex: C6H12O6 = Glucose
  12. Monosaccharide
    A simple sugar that is the basic subunit of a carbohydrate (mono means one)

    Ex: Glucose, fructose, galactose C6H12O6
  13. Dissacharide
    A carbohydrate made of two sugar units (two monosaccharides joined together) with the elimintation of one water to form the bond of the carbohydrate

    Ex: sucrose, lactose, maltose C12H22O11
  14. Polysaccharide
    A carbohydrate made of two sugar units (two monosaccharide joined together) with the elimination of one water to form the bond of the carbohydrate

    • Ex: Starch
    • Starch is found in potatoes, rice, corn and turns black in the presence of the indicator iodine.
  15. Lipid (fat)
    A type of organic molecule that does not dissolve in water (nonpolar), including fats and steroids; store energy and make up cell membranes

    Ex: Chains of fatty acids plus glycerol = lipids
  16. Energy
    Required by living cells for proper functioning

    In living cells during respiration, glucose is chemically changed into ATP to run the cell's machinery.
  17. Activation Energy
    The minimum amount of energy required to start a chemical reaction

    Find graph.
  18. Enzyme
    A type of protein that speeds up metabolic reactions in plants and animals without being permanently changed or destroyed
  19. Active Site
    The site on an enzyme that attaches to a substrate
  20. Protein
    An organic compound that is made of one or more chains of amino acids and that is a principal component of all cells

    Ex: Chains of amino acids = Protein
  21. Amino Acid
    Any one of twenty different organic molecules that contain a carboxyl and an amino group and that combine to form proteins
  22. Nucleic Acid
    An organic compound, either RNA or DNA, whose molecules are made up of one or two chains of nucleotides and carry genetic information
  23. Nucleotide
    In a nucleic-acid chain, a subunit that consists of three things: a sugar, a phosphate, and a nitrogenous base
  24. DNA
    Deoxyribonucleic acid; the material that contains the information that determines inherited characteristics
  25. RNA
    Ribonucleic acid; a natural polymer that is present in all living cells and that plays a role in protein synthesis
  26. ATP
    Adenosine triphosphate; an organic molecule that acts as the main energy source for cell processes; composed of a nitrogenous base, a sugar, and three phosphate groups (as opposed to adenosine diphosphate = two phosphate groups)
  27. pH
    A value used to express the acidity or alkalinity of a solution; defined as the logarithm of the reciprocal of the concentration of hydronium ions;

    An acronym for the % (p) of hydronium ions

    pH = 7 (neutral), pH < 7 (acidic), and a pH > 7(basic)
  28. Neutralization
    Acid + base salt + water