Simplest form of an substance; cannot be broken down into simpler substances
Compounds covanlently bonded having two atoms of the same element
Ex: H2, N2, O2, F2, Cl2, Br2, I2
A substance made up of atoms of two or more different elements joined by chemical bonds
The smallest unit of a substance that keeps all of the physical and chemical properties of that substance; can consist of one atom or two or more atoms bonded together
Ex: A molecule is the result of a covalent bond between two nonmetals (CO2)
An atom, radical, or molecule that has gained or lost one of more electrons and has a negative or positive charge
Ions are charged atoms and can form crystals, like salt.
The force that holds molecules of a single material together
The attractive force between two bodies of different substances that are in contact with each other
A homogeneous mixture of two or more substances uniformly dispersed throughout a single phase.
Review solute and solvent, and remember a solute can be a solid, liquid, or gas.
Any compound that increases the number of hydronium ions when dissolved in water; acids turn blue litmus paper red and react with bases and some metals to form salts
Any compound that increases the number of hydroxide ions when dissolved in water; bases turn red litmus paper blue and react with acids to form salts
Any organic compound that is made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen and that provides nutrients to the cells of living things
(Hint: Say CHO) Ex: C6H12O6 = Glucose
A simple sugar that is the basic subunit of a carbohydrate (mono means one)
Ex: Glucose, fructose, galactose C6H12O6
A carbohydrate made of two sugar units (two monosaccharides joined together) with the elimintation of one water to form the bond of the carbohydrate
Ex: sucrose, lactose, maltose C12H22O11
A carbohydrate made of two sugar units (two monosaccharide joined together) with the elimination of one water to form the bond of the carbohydrate
Starch is found in potatoes, rice, corn and turns black in the presence of the indicator iodine.
A type of organic molecule that does not dissolve in water (nonpolar), including fats and steroids; store energy and make up cell membranes
Ex: Chains of fatty acids plus glycerol = lipids
Required by living cells for proper functioning
In living cells during respiration, glucose is chemically changed into ATP to run the cell's machinery.
The minimum amount of energy required to start a chemical reaction
A type of protein that speeds up metabolic reactions in plants and animals without being permanently changed or destroyed
The site on an enzyme that attaches to a substrate
An organic compound that is made of one or more chains of amino acids and that is a principal component of all cells
Ex: Chains of amino acids = Protein
Any one of twenty different organic molecules that contain a carboxyl and an amino group and that combine to form proteins
An organic compound, either RNA or DNA, whose molecules are made up of one or two chains of nucleotides and carry genetic information
In a nucleic-acid chain, a subunit that consists of three things: a sugar, a phosphate, and a nitrogenous base
Deoxyribonucleic acid; the material that contains the information that determines inherited characteristics
Ribonucleic acid; a natural polymer that is present in all living cells and that plays a role in protein synthesis
Adenosine triphosphate; an organic molecule that acts as the main energy source for cell processes; composed of a nitrogenous base, a sugar, and three phosphate groups (as opposed to adenosine diphosphate = two phosphate groups)
A value used to express the acidity or alkalinity of a solution; defined as the logarithm of the reciprocal of the concentration of hydronium ions;
An acronym for the % (p) of hydronium ions
pH = 7 (neutral), pH < 7 (acidic), and a pH > 7(basic)