chapter 5/6

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bhianneangeli
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chapter 5/6
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2010-09-10 01:36:30
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bones
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  1. osteology
    study of bone structure & the treatment of bone disorders
  2. Functions bone
    • 1. Support
    • 2. Protection
    • 3. Assist in movement
    • 4. Mineral storage & release
    • 5. Site of blood cell production
    • 6. Storage of energy
  3. anatomy of bone
    • 1. Diaphysis - Shaft of the bone
    • 2. Epiphyses - Extremities of the bone
    • 3. Metaphyses - Region where the diaphysis & epiphyses meet. In growing bone, the metaphyses contain the epiphyseal plates, a layer of hyaline cartilage that allow the bone to grow lengthwise.
    • 4. Articular cartilage - covers the epiphyses, reducing friction & absorbing shock at freely movable joints
    • 5. Periosteum - covers the diaphysis. It is composed of:
    • A) Fibrous (outer) layer made of dense irregular CT, blood vessels, & nerves
    • B) Osteogenic (inner) layer composed of elastic fibers, blood vessels, & bone cells
    • 6. Medullary (marrow) cavity - space within the diaphysis containing fatty yellow marrow
    • 7. Endosteum - membrane, containing osteoprogenitor cells & osteoclasts, which lines the medullary cavity
  4. diaphysis
    shaft of bone
  5. epiphyses
    extremities of the bone
  6. metaphyses
    Region where the diaphysis & epiphyses meet. In growing bone, the metaphyses contain the epiphyseal plates, a layer of hyaline cartilage that allow the bone to grow lengthwise
  7. articular cartilage
    covers the epiphyses, reducing friction & absorbing shock at freely movable joints
  8. periostenum
    covers the diaphysis

    contains fibrous and osteogenic layers
  9. medullary cavity
    space within the diaphysis containing fatty yellow marrow
  10. endosteum
    membrane, containing osteoprogenitor cells & osteoclasts, which lines the medullary cavity
  11. Histology
    matrix and cells
  12. matrix
    • 1. 25% water
    • 2. 25% protein fibers - collagen
    • 3. 50% mineral salts - hydroxyapatite (tricalcium phosphate) & calcium carbonate
    • The collagen fibers form the framework of bone & give bone its tensile strength, while the mineralization or calcification of the mineral salts give bone its hardness.
    • Without the collagen fibers bone would be brittle
    • Bone is not completely solid but contains spaces (lacunae) & channels (canaliculi) within
  13. cells
    • osteogenic cells
    • osteoblasts cells
    • osteocytes cells
    • osteoclasts cells
  14. compact bone tissue
    Forms the external layer of all bones of the body & the bulk of the diaphyses of long bones
  15. osteogenic cells
    found in the osteogenic layer of the (central & perforating) containing blood vessels periosteum, the endosteum, & in the bone canals
  16. osteoblasts
    • form bone
    • secrete collagen
  17. osteocytes
    • mature bone cells
    • maintain daily metabolic activities
  18. osteoclasts
    • monocytes and reabsorb bone
    • important for development, growth, and repair
  19. Osteon
    - Basic Structural Unit = Haversian System
  20. central canal
    conduit system for blood vessel and nerves
  21. lamellae
    concentric rings of hard, calcified matrix - collagen & mineral salts
  22. lacunae
    spaces that contain osteocytes
  23. osteocytes
    mature blood cells
  24. canaliculi
    canals connecting the lacunae with each other & the central canals - conduit system for nutrient & waste transport
  25. accessory areas
    • interstitial lamellae
    • perforating canal
  26. interstitial lamellae
    areas between osteons; they are fragments of older osteons that have been partially destroyed during bone rebuilding or growth
  27. perforating canal
    canal allowing blood vessels, nerves, & lymphatics of the periosteum to connect to the central canals & ultimately the medullary cavity
  28. SPONGY BONE TISSUE
    • 1. No osteons, no Haversian canal
    • 2. Lamellae layers are formed into columns called trabeculae, which possess lacunae with osteocytes inside
    • 3. Spaces between the trabeculae are filled with red bone marrow - blood cell production
    • 4. Osteocytes obtain their nutrients directly from the blood vessels penetrating into the medullary cavity.
  29. intermembranous ossification
    formation of bone directly on or within fibrous CT
  30. ossification
    convert bones into tissues
  31. Step 1 of intermembranous ossification


    1. Cells in the mesenchyme come together & develop into osteoprogenitor cells & then into osteoblasts. This is the center of ossification. Osteoblasts secrete matrix, surrounding themselves


  32. step 2 of intermembranous ossification



    1. Secretion stops. Osteoblasts are now encapsulated osteocytes. The osteocytes maintain communication via the canaliculi. Matrix calcifies.



  33. step 3 of intermembranous ossification



      • The bone matrix develop into trabeculae that fuse together into spongy bone. On the outside of the bone the mesenchyme condenses


  34. step 4 of intermembranous ossification



    1. mesenchyme develops into the periosteum



  35. endochronal ossification
    replacement of cartilage by bone
  36. endochronal ossification
    S1A
    Mesenchymal cells come together to form the shape of the bone, and then differentiate into cartilage producing cells = cartilage model
  37. endochondral ossification
    S1B
    membrane called the perichondrium develops around the cartilage
  38. endochondral ossification
    S1C
    Chondrocytes in the mid-region trigger calcification
  39. endochondral ossification
    S1D
    other chondrocytes die due to a lack of nutrients = formation of cavities
  40. endochondral ossification
    S2
    nutrient artery penetrates the bone which stimulates the osteoprogenitor cells in the perichondrium to develop into osteoblasts. These cells produce compact bone under the perichondrium which is now properly called the periosteum
  41. endochondral ossification
    S3
    Capillaries grow into the disintegrating cartilage, & stimulate the development of a primary ossification center. Osteoblasts will replace the calcified matrix with spongy bone, extending toward the ends (epiphyses)
  42. endochondral ossification
    S4
    Osteoclasts break down the spongy bone, creating the medullary cavity, which fills with red bone marrow
  43. endochondral ossification
    S5
    diaphysis is now composed of compact bone surrounding the medullary cavity
  44. endochondral ossification
    S6
    When blood vessels enter the epiphyses, secondary ossification centers will develop, spongy bone is formed but not destroyed.Hyaline remains covering the epiphyses as well as at the epiphyseal plate.
  45. Epiphyseal plate
    • 1. Zone of resting cartilage - chondrocytes that
    • anchor the epiphyseal plate to the epiphysis; starting area
    • 2. Zone of proliferating cartilage - dividing (mitotically active) chondrocytes that will eventually replace those that die at the diaphyseal side
    • 3. Zone of hypertrophic (maturing) cartilage - chondrocytes grow; mitosis is halted
    • 4. Zone of calcified cartilage - dead chondrocytes in calcified matrix, allowing osteoblasts & blood vessels from the diaphysis to invade it & replace it with bone.
  46. zone of resting cartiage
    chondrocytes that anchor the epiphyseal plate to the epiphysis; starting area
  47. Zone of proliferating cartilage
    dividing (mitotically active) chondrocytes that will eventually replace those that die at the diaphyseal side
  48. Zone of hypertrophic (maturing) cartilage
    chondrocytes grow; mitosis is halted
  49. Zone of calcified cartilage
    dead chondrocytes in calcified matrix, allowing osteoblasts & blood vessels from the diaphysis to invade it & replace it with bone
  50. bone growth- diameter
    • 1. Bone lining the medullary cavity is destroyed by osteoclasts
    • 2. Osteoblasts from the periosteum add new bone to the outer surface
    • 3. Spongy bone is initially produced & is reorganized into compact bone
  51. fracture
    any break in bone
  52. fracture repair
    • 1) Development of a fracture hematoma - develops in 6 – 8 hours from broken blood vessels in the periosteum, osteons, & medullary cavity. Serves as the focus for cellular invasion. Osteoclasts remove the dead & dying tissue for the next several weeks
    • 2) Blood capillaries grow into the fracture hematoma helping the fracture organize itself into a procallus, which is actively growing connective tissue
    • 3) Fibroblasts & osteoprogenitor cells invade the procallus. Fibroblasts produce collagen to unite the ends of the broken bone. Osteoprogenitor cells develop into chondroblasts in areas of the break that are avascular, which produce fibrocartilage, transforming the procallus into a fibrocartilaginous (soft) callus
    • 4) Osteoprogenitor cells in vascular regions develop into osteoblasts which will produce spongy bone trabeculae. They will also eventually replace fibrocartilage, resulting in a bony (hard) callus
    • 5) Remodeling is the final phase in which: A) remaining original fragments are removed by osteoclasts, and B) compact bone replaces spongy bone around the periphery of the fracture
  53. treatment of fractures
    • reduction
    • closed reduction
    • open reduction
  54. reduction
    fractured ends must be aligned
  55. closed reduction
    fractured ends of the bone are brought into alignment manually & the skin remains intact
  56. open reduction
    fractured ends of the bone are brought into alignment by a surgical procedure in which internal fixation devices are used
  57. types of fractures
    • partial
    • complete
    • closed
    • open
    • comminuted
    • greenstick
    • stress
  58. partial
    break across the bone is incomplete
  59. complete
    • break is complete
    • leaving one or more pieces
  60. closed
    bone doesn't break through skin
  61. open
    • ends of bone go through skin
    • yuck
  62. comminuted
    bone has splintered at the site of impact, and smaller fragments of the bone lie between the two main fragments
  63. greenstick
    partial fracture in which one side of the bone is broken & the other side bends; occurs only in children
  64. stress
    Microscopic fractures resulting from the inability to withstand repeated stressful impact

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