G/T Biology Test Review Notes

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G/T Biology Test Review Notes
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2009-09-15 20:01:27
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  1. MATTER
    Anything that occupies space and has mass.
  2. MASS
    The quantity of matter an object has.
  3. ELEMENT
    A substance that cannot be broken down chemically to form simpler kinds of matter.
  4. SYMBOL
    The shorthand way of writing an elements name.
  5. ATOM
    The simplest particle of an element that retains all the properties of the element.
  6. SUBATOMIC PARTICLES
    The different particles that make up the atom.
  7. PROTON
    Has a positive electrical charge.
  8. NEUTRON
    The other particle in the central core of an atom, the neutron, has no charge.
  9. ELECTRON
    Negatively charged particles.
  10. ATOMIC NUMBER
    The number of protons in an atom is called the atomic number of the element.
  11. ATOMIC STRUCTURE
    The number of protons, neutrons, and electrons.
  12. NUCLEUS
    The central core of an atom.
  13. ENERGY LEVELS
    Electrons that move about the nucleus at very high speeds in one of several different energy levels. Electrons in outer energy levels have more energy than those in inner energy levels.
  14. COMPOUND
    A pure substance that is made up of atoms of 2 or more elements. (such as H2O)
  15. BONDING
    Combining of atoms.
  16. COVALENT BOND
    A covalent bond forms when 2 atoms share 1 or more pairs of electrons. Water is made up of 1 oxygen atom and 2 hydrogen atoms held together by covalent bonds.
  17. IONIC BOND
    Because positive and negative electrical charges attract each other, the sodium ion and the chlorine ion attract each other. This attraction is called an ionic bond.
  18. ION
    An atom or molecule with an electrical charge.
  19. ACTIVATION ENERGY
    The amount of energy needed to start a chemical or physical reaction.
  20. REACTANT
    A compound or atom involved in a chemical reaction. (reactant could be CO2 and H2O)
  21. PRODUCT
    A compound formed by a chemical reaction.
  22. CATALYST
    A chemical that reduces the amount of activation energy needed for a reaction but is not a reactant.
  23. ENZYME
    Catalyst (usually a protein in living systems)
  24. FORMULA
  25. EMPIRICAL
  26. STRUCTURAL
  27. SOLUTION
    mixture in which 1 or more substances are uniformly dissolved in another substance.
  28. SOLUTE
    A substance dissolved in a solution
  29. SOLVENT
    In a solution, the substance in which a solute is dissolved.
  30. SATURATED SOLUTION
    A solution in which no more solute can dissolve.
  31. pH SCALE
    A numeric range that quantifies that the relative concentrations of hydronium ions (acid) and hydroxide ions (base) in a solution.
  32. H IONS
  33. ACID
    When the number of hydronium ions in a solution is greater than the number of hydroxide ions.
  34. BASE
    When the number of hydroxide ions is greater than the number of hydronium ions.
  35. BUFFER
    Chemical substances that neutralize small amounts of acids or bases that are added to a solution.
  36. How do elements receive their symbols?
    By the first letter, other letters in the name, or Latin words
  37. How does one element differ from another element?
  38. What subatomic particle does the atomic number refer to?
  39. What additional information can you get from the atomic number?
    The number of Protons and Electrons.
  40. Why is the overall electrical charge on an atom neutral?
    Because the number of protons equal the number of electrons.
  41. Give the symbols for the following elements:
    C, O, N, Na, Cl, K, H
    • C = carbon
    • O = oxygen
    • N = nitrogen
    • Na = sodium
    • Cl = Chlorine
    • K = Potassium
    • H = Hydrogen
  42. Give the electrical charge on the following subatomic particles:
    Proton, Neutron, Electron
    • Proton – positive
    • Neutron – neutral
    • Electron – negative
  43. Where in the structure of the atom are:
    Protons, Neutrons, Electrons
    • Protons-in the nucleus
    • Neutrons-in the nucleus
    • Electrons-surrounds the nucleus
  44. How many electrons can be housed in the:
    1st, 2nd, and 3rd energy level
    • 1st energy level-2
    • 2nd energy level-8
    • 3rd energy level-16
  45. Why do atoms react chemically with other atoms?
    The outer most electron shell is not fully filled. As the atom reacts it becomes more stable when it is fully filled.
  46. What is the difference between a covalent bond and an ionic bond?
    • A covalent bond is held together because it shares electrons.
    • An ionic bond is held together by electrical charges.
  47. Why are ions formed through ionic bonding but not covalent bonding?
    The ions are formed because of a lack or excess of electrons creating a charge.
  48. What is the relationship between activation energy and catalyst?
    A chemical that reduces the amount of activation energy needed for a reaction.
  49. What is the relationship between catalyst and enzyme?
    An enzyme is a catalyst in a living system.
  50. How does an empirical formula differ from a structural formula?
  51. What is the Universal Solvent?
    Water
  52. What are the 2 substances which compose a solution?
    The solvent and solute.
  53. Give the range of numbers on the pH scale and tell the range for an acid, a base, and neutral?
    • 1-6 ACID
    • 7 NEUTRAL
    • 8-14 BASE

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