Psychology 2 Chapter 2

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lgarc003
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34000
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Psychology 2 Chapter 2
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2010-09-13 03:27:25
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Psychology Chapter
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Psychology 2, Chapter 2: Nerve Cells and Nerve Impulses
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  1. Describe the components and their respective functions of the neuron: dendrites, cell soma, nucleus, axon hillock, axon, nodes of Ranvier, myelin sheath, axon terminal (a.k.a. axon branches or presynaptic terminals), and terminal buttons.

    Know location on diagram.
  2. Name the parts of the motor neuron.
    (*Locate the node of ranvier, terminal branches, and dendrites.)

  3. What are the three types of neurons?
    Motor Neurons: Help us move (motor skills), send information AWAY from the spinal cord.

    Sensory Neurons: Help us sense (sensory) send information TO the spinal cord.

    Interneurons: Connect the sensory and motor neurons. Majority of cells are interneuron cells.
  4. Compare and contrast afferent and efferent neurons.
    • Afferent: Brings information to the axon
    • Efferent: Carries information away from the axon
  5. What are glia cells?
    Hold neurons together, are small and numerous.
  6. What are the five types of glia discussed in the text?
    • 1) Astrocytes
    • 2) Microglia
    • 3) Oligodendrocytes
    • 4) Schwann Cells
    • 5) Radial Glia
  7. What distinguishes each glial cell from the other?
    • Oligodendrocytes: Produce myelin, are found in brain and spinal cord.
    • Schwann Cells: produce myelin, are found in peripheral systems.
    • Microglia: remove waste after cell death.
    • Astrocyte: Coordinates axis activity, removes waste after neuron death.
    • Radial Glia: Aids in development.
  8. Are there any similarities between certain glia cells?
    • Oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells both produce myelin.
    • Microglia and Astrocyte both remove waste.
  9. What is the blood-brain barried? (BBB)
    Mechanism that keeps chemicals out of the brain.
  10. How does the BBB work?
    Stops bad chemicals from passing onto the brain therefore minimizing the lost of neurons.
  11. What is active transport?
    Expands energy to pump chemicals fro the blood into the brain.
  12. Can you think of any downside of having a blood-brain barrier?
    • Has such a tight barrier to keep chemicals out of the brain that when illnesses such as brain cancer occur it makes it difficult to receive treatment.
    • (Ex: Chemotherapy fails to cure brain cancer because of the blood-brain barrier.)
  13. What is glucose?
    Sugar, works as nutricion for neurons.
  14. Why is glucose important to the neurons?
    Glucose is the only nutrient that passes through the blood-brain barrier. It serves as nutricion for neurons and neurons receive oxygen through the glucose.
  15. Explain the relationship between thiamine (vitamin B1) and glucose.
    We need thiamine (vitamin B1) to be able to use glucose. Thiamine deficiency can lead to death of neurons and cayse severe memory impairments.
  16. What is an electrical gradient?
    Difference in positive and negative charges across a membrane.
  17. What is polarization?
    A difference in electrical change, neuron inside has negative charged proteins inside.
  18. What is meant by a "resting potential"?
    Difference in voltage in a resting neuron.
  19. What is selective permeability?
    • Some chemicals can pass through more freely than others.
    • (Ex: Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide, Water cross freely. Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, and Chloride cross over only when channels are open.)
  20. What is the purpose of the sodium-potassium pump?
    Mechanism that actively transports three sodium ions out of the cell while simultaniously drawing in two potassium ions.
  21. What is a concentration gradient?
    Sodium becomes more concentrated outside than inside, sodium is more likely to enter the cell than leave it.
  22. Know the concentration of sodium and potassium.
    (Ex: how much sodium on the inside relative to the outside of the cell, how much potassium on the inside of the cell relative to the outside of the cell?)
    For every 3 sodium ions out of the cell, 2 potassium ions are inside the cell.
  23. When a neuron is at rest, what two forces are acting on sodium?
  24. What advantage does a resting potential present to neurons?
  25. What is the distinction between depolarization and hyperpolarization?
  26. What is the action potential?
  27. Why is the action potential important for neurotransmission?
  28. How does an action potential occur?
    (there are several steps involved in this process)
  29. What is the all-or-none-law?
  30. Define refractory period.
  31. Describe the different types of refractory period.
    (absolute vs. relative)
  32. What is meant by "propagation of the action potential"?
  33. What are nodes of Ranvier and why are they important?
  34. Can action potentials regenerate along the axon membrane, between the nodes of Ranvier?
  35. What does salutatory conduction mean?
  36. What is a local neuron?
  37. What are graded potentials?

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