flash card file (4&5).txt

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Anonymous
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34025
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flash card file (4&5).txt
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2010-09-11 12:27:23
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psychology
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developmental psychology
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  1. Differentiation
    =the process by which behaviors and physical structures become specialized
  2. Failure to thrive (FTT)
    =a disorder of infancy and early childhood characterized by variable eating and inadequate gains in weight.
  3. Canalization
    =the tendency to return to one's genetically determined patterns of growth
  4. Nerves
    =bundles of axons from many neurons
  5. Neurons
    = cells in the nervous system that transmit messages
  6. Dendrites
    =rootlike parts of neurons that receive impulses from other neurons
  7. Axon
    =a long, thin part of a neuron that transmits impulses to other neurons through branching structures called axon terminals.
  8. Neurotransmitter
    =a chemical that transmits a neural impulse across a synapse from one neuron to another
  9. Myelin sheath
    = a fatty, whitish substance that encases and insulates axons.
  10. Myelination
    = the coating of axons with myelin.
  11. Multiple sclerosis
    = a disorder in which hard fibrous tissue replaces myelin, impeding neural transmission.
  12. Medulla
    = an area of the hindbrain involved in heartbeat and respiration.
  13. Cerebellum
    =the part of the hindbrain involved in coordination and balance.
  14. Cerebrum
    =the part of the brain responsible for learning, thought, memory, and language.
  15. Ulnar grasp
    =grasping objects between fingers and the palm.
  16. Pincer grasp
    =grasping objects between the fingers and the thumb.
  17. Locomotion
    =movement from one place to another.
  18. Toddler
    =a child who walks with short, uncertain steps.
  19. Perceptual constancy
    =perceiving objects as maintaining their identity although sensations from them change as their positions change.
  20. Primary circular reactions
    =the repetition of actions that first occurred by chance and that focus on the infant's own body.
  21. Habituation
    =becoming used to a stimulus and therefore paying less attention to it.
  22. Secondary circular reactions
    =the repetition of actions that produce and effect on the environment
  23. Tertiary circular reactions
    =the purposeful adaptation of established schemes to new situations.
  24. Object permanence
    =recognition that objects continue to exist when they are not in view
  25. Deferred imitation
    =the imitation of people and events that occurred in the past.
  26. Visual recognition memory
    =the kind of memory shown in an infant's ability to discriminate previously seen objects from novel objects
  27. Prelinguistic
    =vocalizations made by the infant before the use of language.
  28. Cooing
    =prelinguistic vowel like sounds that reflect feelings of positive excitement.
  29. Babbling
    =the child's first vocalizations that reflect feelings of positive excitement.
  30. Echolalia
    =the automatic repetition of sounds or words.
  31. Intonation
    =the use of pitches of varying levels to communicate meaning.
  32. Receptive vocabulary
    = the number of words one understands.
  33. Referential language style
    =use of language primarily as a means for labeling objects.
  34. Expressive vocabulary
    =the number of words one can use in the production of language.
  35. Expressive language style
    =use of language primarily as a means for engaging in social interaction.
  36. Overextension
    =use of words in situations in which their meanings become extended.
  37. Telegraphic speech
    =type of speech in which only the essential words are used.
  38. Mean length of utterance
    =the average number of morphemes used in an utterance.
  39. Morpheme
    =the smallest unit of meaning in a language.
  40. Holophrase
    =a single word that is used to express complex meaning.
  41. Syntax
    =the rules in a language for placing words in order to form sentences.
  42. Models
    =in learning theory, those whose behaviors are imitated by others.
  43. Extinction
    =decrease in frequency of a response due to absence of reinforcement.
  44. Shaping
    =gradual building of complex behavior through reinforcement of successive approximations to the target behavior.
  45. Psycholinguistic theory
    =the view that language learning involves an interaction between environmental influences and an inborn tendency to acquire language.
  46. Language acquisition device
    =neural "prewiring" that eases the child's learning or grammar.
  47. Aphasia
    =a disruption in the ability to understand or produce language.
  48. Surface structure
    the superficial grammatical construction of a sentence.
  49. Deep structure
    the underlying meaning of a sentence.
  50. Broca's aphasia
    =an aphasia caused by damage to Broca's area and characterized by difficulty speaking.
  51. Wenicke's aphasia
    an aphasia caused by damage to Wernicke's area and characterized by impaired comprehension of speech and difficulty producing the right word.
  52. Sensitive period
    the period from about 18 months to puberty when the brain is especially capable of learning language.

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