Lateral Cervical Region

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elg04c
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34064
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Lateral Cervical Region
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2010-12-05 15:42:25
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Lateral Cervical Region
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Lateral Cervical Region
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  1. 2 regions of the neck
    • 1. Anterior Region (Anterior Triangle)
    • 2. Lateral Cervical Region (Posterior/ Lateral Triangle)
  2. What dermatones innervates the neck?
    C2-C4
  3. What cutaneous nerves innervate the neck?
    C2-C4 branches of the cervical plexus
  4. What is the name for the ventral rami of C2?
    The Lesser Occipital Nerve
  5. What is the name for the dorsal rami of C2?
    The greater occipital nerve
  6. Platysma Attachments
    • 1. Inferior border of mandible
    • 2. Skin
    • 3. Subcutaneous tissue of lower face
    • 4. Fascia covering superior parts of pectoralis major and deltoid muscles
  7. Platysma Innervation
    Cervical branch of Facial nerve (CN VII)
  8. Actions of Platysma muscle
    Draws corners of the mouth inferiorly and widens it to show expressions of sadness and fright. Draws skin of the neck superiorly when teeth are clenched.
  9. Sternocleidomastoid Attachments
    • 1. Lateral surface of mastoid process of temporal bone
    • 2. Lateral half of superior nuchal line
    • 3. Anterior surface of manubrium of sternum (Sternal Head)
    • 3. Superior surface of medial third of clavicle (clavicular head)
  10. Innervation of Sternocleiodomastoid
    • 1. CN XI (motor)
    • 2. C2 and C3 (pain and proprioception)
  11. Unilateral actions of the sternocleidomastoid
    • 1. Laterally flexes neck
    • 2. Rotates face upward to opposite side
  12. Bilateral Actions of the sternocleidomastoid
    • 1. Extends neck at Atlanto-Occipital joint
    • 2. Flexes neck at cervical vertebrae
  13. Where is the Platysma muscle?
    In the superficial fascia of the neck
  14. What are the types of deep fascia in the neck?
    • 1. Investing fascia
    • 2. Pretracheal fascia
    • 3. Prevertebreal fascia
  15. What is contained in the Carotoid sheath?
    • 1. Common and internal Carotid artery
    • 2. Vegas Nerve (CN X)
    • 3. Internal Jugular vein
  16. What are the boundaries of the posterior cervical triangle?
    • 1. Posterior border of sternocleidomastoid muscle
    • 2. Anterior border of trapezius
    • 3. Middle 1/3 of clavicle
    • 4. Floor is the prevertebral fascia
    • 5. Roof is the investing fascia
    • 6. Apex is the superior nuchal line
  17. What are the regions of the posterior cervicle triangle?
    • Subdivided by the inferior belly of the omohyoid muscle
    • 1. Omoclavicular triangle
    • 2. Occipital triangle
  18. What muscles are in the floor of the Posterior Cervicle Triangle?
    • 1. Splenius Capitus
    • 2. Levatator Scapula
    • 3. Posterior Scalene
    • 4. Middle Scalene
    • 5. Anterior Scalene
  19. What disease indicates an inability to use one of the sternocleidomastoid muscles?
    Torticollis
  20. Attachments of the Omohyoid muscle
    • 1. Superior belly attaches to the hyoid bone
    • 2. Inferior belly attaches to the superior border of the scapula
    • 3. Anchored by the clavicle
  21. Innervation of the Omohyoid muscle
    • Ansa Cervicalis
    • (C1, C2 and C3)
  22. Actions of the Omohyoid
    Depresses, retracts and stabilizes hyoid bone
  23. Name of the tendon on Omohyoid
    intermediate tendon
  24. Anterior Scalenus Attachments
    • 1. Transverse processes of C3-C6
    • 2. attaches distally to rib 1
  25. Middle Scalenus Attachment
    • 1. Transverse processes of C3-C6
    • 2. Attaches distally to rib 1
  26. Posterior Scalenus Attachments
    • 1. Transverse processes of C5-C7
    • 2. attaches distally to rib 2
  27. Innervation of Scalene muscles
    Ventral Rami of Cervical spinal nerves (C4-C8)
  28. Actions of Scalenes
    • 1. Laterally flex neck
    • 2. Accessory muscle for respiration

    *Important muscles in people with COPD for respiration*
  29. Contents of Posterior Cervical Triangle
    • 1. External Jugular Vein
    • 2. Cervical Plexus- cutaneous branches C2-C4
    • 3. Spinal Acessory Nerve (CN XI)
    • 4. Transverse Cervical and Suprascapular arteries
    • 5. 3rd part of Subclavian artery
    • 6. Subclavian vein (inconsistent)
    • 7. Occipital artery
    • 8. Brachial Plexus (C5-C8 and T1) roots and trunks
    • 9. Cervical lymph nodes
  30. How superficial is the external jugular vein?
    Superficial to the fascia
  31. Which cervical spinal nerve does the transverse cervical nerve come from?
    C2 and C3
  32. Which cervical spinal nerves does the supraclavicular nerve come from?
    C3 and C4
  33. What are the names of the cutaneous branches of the cervical plexus that are found in the posterior lateral triangle?
    • 1. Greater Occipital nerve
    • 2. Lesser Occipital nerve
    • 3. Transverse Cervical nerve
    • 4. Supraclavicular nerve
  34. Why would someone have a prominent external jugular vein?
    • 1. Increased pressure on the right side of the heart due to congestive heart failure
    • 2. Pulmonary edema
    • 3. Superior vena cava obstruction
  35. What blood vessels are in the Posterior Cervical Triangle?
    • 1. Cervicodorsal trunk of the Transverse Cervical Artery
    • 2. Suprascapular artery
    • 3. Subclavian artery (3rd part)
    • 4. Subclavian vein
    • 5. Occipital artery (in apex)
  36. What innevates the diaphram?
    C3, C4 and C5 keep the diaphram alive
  37. What is the Cervical Plexus?
    Ventral Primary Rami of C1-C4
  38. What is the Brachial Plexus?
    Ventral Primary Rami of C5- T1
  39. Where does the 1st part of the subclavian artery come from?
    1. Comes of the aorta to the brachiocephalic trunk
  40. What does the 1st part of the subclavian artery branch into?
    • 1. Vertebral artery
    • 2. Internal thoracic artery
    • 3. Thyrocervical trunk
  41. What does the Thyrocervical trunk branch into?
    • 1. Inferior thyroid artery
    • 2. Transverse cervical artery
    • 3. Suprascapular artery
  42. What does the second part of the subclavian artery branch into?
    Costocervical trunk
  43. What does the Costocervical trunk branch into?
    • 1. Deep cervical artery
    • 2. Supreme intercostal artery
  44. What does the 3rd part of the subclavian artery branch into?
    sometimes the dorsal scapular artery
  45. Where is the 1st part of the subclavian artery located?
    Median to anterior scalene
  46. Where is the 2nd part of the subclavian artery located?
    deep to the anterior scalene
  47. Where is the 3rd part of the subclavian artery located?
    Lateral to anterior scalene
  48. What makes up the upper trunks of the brachial plexus?
    Ventral primary rami of C5 and C6
  49. What makes up the middle trunks of the brachial plexus?
    Ventral Primary Rami of C7
  50. What makes up the lower trunk of the brachial plexus?
    Ventral Primary Rami of C8 and T1
  51. Where do the roots of the brachial plexus pass through in the neck?
    through the interscalene triangle (between anterior and middle scalene)
  52. Where is the interscalene triangle?
    Between the anterior and middle scalene
  53. Where do the roots of the brachial plexus go?
    Through the posterior cervical triangle to get to the axilla
  54. What is a neck stinger?
    a nerve pinch injury that causes burning pain to radiate down one of the upper limbs (can cause weakness or numbness in the muscle)
  55. What are the causes of a Neck stinger?
    • 1. Stretching of the brachial plexus
    • 2. Direct blow to brachial plexus
    • 3. Compression to brachial plexus

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