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Definition of Nurse
to care, protect, watch over, to pay serious attention to
How do nurses show caring behavior?
Communicator, Teacher, Counselor, Leader, Researcher, Advocate
What are some current trends in nursing?
- Increase in age population
- Age of nurses,
- People are living longer with chronic disease
- Shorter hospital stays
- Culturally competent care, non ethnocentric
- MSN, nurse practitioners
What are some skills that nurses possess?
- Cognitive-scientific base of knowledge
- Technical-operation of equipment
- Ethical and legal-working with a moral compass
What is the bottom level of Maslow's hierarchy of needs?
Physiological- breathing, food, water, sex, sleep, homeostasis, excretion
What is level 2 up on Maslow's hierarchy?
security of body, employment, resources, morality,family, health, property
Level 3 of Maslow's Hierarchy?
Love/belonging- friendship, family, sexual intimacy
Level 4 up on Maslow's Hierarchy?
self-esteem, confidence, achievement, respect of others, respect by others
Top level of Maslow's Hierarchy?
morality, creativity, spontaneity. problem solving, lack of prejudice, acceptance of facts
Aims of nursing are:
- Promote health
- Prevent illness
- Restore health
- Facilitate coping with disability or death
Definition of health according to WHO
State of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, not merely the absence of disease or infirmity (WHO, 1946)
- Disease – pathologic change
- Illness – response of the person to a disease
What is acute illness?
- Lasts a short time
- No lingering effects
- Rapid onset of symptoms
What is chronic illness?
- Longer than 6 months
- Causes a permanent change,
- slow onset w/periods of remission and exacerbation
What are the risk factors for illness?
Age, Genetic factors, Physiologic factors, Health habits, Lifestyle, Environment
What are the factors affecting safety?
- Ability to Communicate: language barriers
- Sensory perception: may not see or smell things that are risky
- Psychosocial State: Depression
- Developmental: teenage drinking and driving
- Health state: perhaps dizzy and can fallPractice
What are some instances when falls can occur?
bathroom,try to get OOB, change of position, getting food or drink
Who are some at risk people for falling?
Frail, elderly, mobility issues, heavily medicated, confused, inebriated
What safety measures can we use to reduce falls?
- Orientation to surroundings
- Observe for environmental hazards/monitor vital signs
- Bed and wheelchair wheels locked and bed in lowest position
- Place call bell within reach(respond promptly!)/personal articles close by
- Checkeck footwear (on slip socks_)
- Appropriate use of restraints/siderails
- Involve family
What are some criteria for restraints?
- Need dr order, reassessed every 24 hours,Least restrictive
- Tied to bed frame, check remove q2h,ROM,TPCCS
- Most common wrist, mitts, and vest
How many side rails are considered a restraint
What are some causes of fires in the hospital?
- Combustion of anesthetic agents
- Faulty wiring/unsafe electrical equipment
Nursing Responsibilities in case of fire
- R…….Rescue patient
- A…….Activate fire alarm system
- C…….Confine the fire
- E…….Evacuate patients (OR) extinguish the fire
What is poison?
Any substance that impairs health or destroys life when ingested, inhaled, or absorbed by the body
What is the phone number for poison control?
Poison control center 1 800 222-1222
What is the process of infection?
C.Diff -->portal of exit (diarrhea)-->means of transmission-->portal of entry (mouth)-->host
What is medical asepsis?
Practices that reduce the number and transfer of pathogens
What is surgical asepsis?
Practices used to keep objects and areas free from all microorganisms
What are some standard safety precautions?
- Wash hands, Clean non sterile gloves, PPE,No recapping needles
- Proper handling of soiled equipment
- Adequate environmental controls
- Review room assignments
What are examples of PPE equipment?
Gloves-one per patient
List some transmission based precautions.
Airborne-Negative pressure room, Tuberculosis, measles, chicken pox, Need special mask, gloves, mask, gown, gloves
Droplet-mumps, MRSA pneumonia regular mask, gown, gloves, goggles
Contact-no mask, gown, gloves, goggle
What are the four most common reasons for Isolation Precautions in the hospital?
- MRSA (Methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus)-blood, urine, stool, wound, airway and secretions
- VRE (Vancomycin resistant enterococcus)-urine
- C-diff (Clostridium difficile)-diarrhea
- TB (Tuberculosis)
What are the systolic/diastolic numbers for prehypertension?
- Systolic 120-139 mmHg
- Dyastolic 80-89 mmHg
What are the numbers for normal BP?
What are the numbers for Low Blood pressure?
- systolic <100
- diastolic <60
What are the numbers for hypertension?
- Stage 1
- Systolic >140 – 159 mmHg
- Dyastolic > 90 – 99 mmHg
Stage 2 - >160 or >100