Chapter 5 Digestive System.txt

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crae
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34098
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Chapter 5 Digestive System.txt
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2010-09-11 19:02:42
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Digestive System
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Digestive System.txt
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  1. Gastrointestinal tract
    begins at the mouth, where food enters, and ends with the anus, where solid wastes leave the body
  2. ingestion, digestion, absorption, and elimination
    the four functions of the system
  3. ingested
    where complex food is taken into the mouth
  4. digested
    where food is broken down mechanically and chemically as it travels through the gastrointestinal tract.
  5. Enzymes
    Speed up chemical reactions and help the breakdown of complex nutrients
  6. absorption
    digested food passes through the lining of cells or epithelium of the small intestine and into the bloodstream
  7. cheeks
    form the walls of the oval-shaped oral cavity
  8. lips
    surround the opening to the cavity
  9. hard palate
    forms the anterior poertion of the roof of the mouth
  10. soft palate
    lies posterior to the hard palate
  11. Rugae
    irregular ridges in the mucous membrane covering the anterior portion of the hard palate
  12. uvula
    a small and soft tissue projection; hangs from the soft palate; helps in making sounds and speech
  13. tongue
    Extends across the floor of the oral cavity & muscles attach it to the lower jawbone; moves food around while chewing and swallowing
  14. mastication
    chewing
  15. deglutition
    swallowing
  16. papillae
    small raised areas on the tongue; have taste buds that are sensitive to chemical nature of foods and let discrimination of different tastes when food goes through the tongue
  17. tonsils
    masses of lymphatic tissue located in depressions of the mucous membranes that lie on both sides of the oropharynx; filters to protect the body from invasion of microorganisms and make lymphocytes
  18. gums
    fleshy tissue surrounding the sockets of the teeth
  19. labial
    for incisor and canine teeth & is located closest to the lips
  20. buccal
    surface for premolar and molar teeth and lies adjacent to the cheek
  21. facial surface
    dentists refer to both the labial and buccal surfaces of a tooth as this
  22. lingual
    on the side of the tooth that lies directly opposite the facial surface is this surface
  23. mesial
    surface that lies closer to the median line
  24. distal
    the surface that lies farther from the medial line
  25. crown
    is located above the gum line
  26. root
    is located within the bony tooth socket
  27. enamel
    protects the tooth; dense, hard, white, and the hardest substance in the entire body
  28. dentin
    the main substance of a tooth, which lies underneath the enamel; extends throughout the crown; yellow, composed of bony tissue that is softer than enamel
  29. cementum
    covers, protects, and supports the dentin in the root
  30. periodontal membrane
    surrounds the cementum and holds the tooth in place in the tooth socket
  31. pulp
    lies underneath the dentin; fills the center of the tooth
  32. root canal
    blood vessels, nerve endings connective tissue, and lymphatic vessels are located within this pulp canal
  33. saliva
    lubricates the mouth; contains important digestive enzymes as well as healing growth factors such as cytokines
  34. pharynx
    muscular tube that is about five inches long and is lined with a mucous membrane; serves as a passageway for both air traveling form the nose to the trachea and for food traveling from the oral cavity to the esophagus
  35. esophagus
    nine-to-ten inch muscular tube extending from the pharynx to the stomach
  36. peristalsis
    involuntary, progressive, rhythmic contraction of muscles in the wall of the esophagus propelling a bolus down toward the stomach
  37. bolus
    mass of food
  38. fundus
    upper portion of the stomach
  39. body
    middle section of the stomach
  40. antrum
    lower portion of the stomach
  41. sphincter
    rings of muscle that control the opening leading into and out of the stomach; prevent food from regurgitating
  42. lower espohageal sphincter
    relaxes and contracts in order to move food from the esophagus into the stomach
  43. pyloric sphincter
    lets food leave the stomach when it is ready to do so
  44. rugae
    folds in the mucous membrane that line the stomach
  45. pepsin
    to begin digestion of proteins

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