4.1 Definitions

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4.1 Definitions
2009-10-17 18:03:34

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  1. cell membrane
    a thin, protective covering that separates the inside of a cell from its external environment and controls the flow of materials in and out of the cell
  2. cell wall
    a tough, rigid structure that surrounds the cell membrane of plant cells
  3. cytoplasm
    a jelly-like substance within a cell containing organelles, water, and other life supporting materials
  4. organelle
    a specialized cell part in which specific functions are carried out to ensure a cell's survival
  5. mitochondria
    the organelle that changes glucose into usable for use in the cell
  6. chloroplasts
    organelles in plant cells that trap the energy from the Sun and make glucose as an energy source for the plant
  7. ribosomes
    an organelle without a membrane that produces proteins
  8. proteins
    essential materials required for the cell to carry out the activities necessary for its survival
  9. endoplasmic reticulum
    a network of membrane-covered channels within a cell that transports materials
  10. vesicles
    membrane-covered sacs that form off the ends of the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi body and that transport proteins, nutrients, and water into, out of, and around the inside of the cell
  11. Golgi body
    an organelle that sorts and packages proteins for transport
  12. vacuoles
    membrane-covered storage containers with cells
  13. nucleus
    an organelle that controls all activities within the cell
  14. nucleur membrane
    the thin outer membrane that surrounds the cell nucleus; separates the contents of the nucleus from the cytoplasm
  15. nucleolus
    a membrane-free organelle that floats in the interior of the nucleus and makes ribosomes
  16. nucleur pores
    openings in the nucleur membrane that allow only certain materials into and out of the nucleus
  17. chromatin
    a substance within the nucleus that contains DNA and proteins
  18. chromosones
    a threadlike structure in a cell nucleus that carries genes
  19. deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
    a biological molecule found in the cell nucleus that carries genetic information; composed of sugar, phosphate, and four different bases (guanine, cytosine, adenine, and thymine) passed on from generation to generation during reproduction
  20. enzymes
    proteins that help speed chemical reactions within cells
  21. genes
    segment of DNA located at a specific place on a chromosome, each contain information to produce proteins