Card Set Information
Questions from lecture #2
What activities will increase the cells’ need for energy?
Where is temperature origination?
Generated in core of body and circulated to peripherial surface by circulating blood
What controls temperature?
What do thermoreceptors do to increase or decrease temperature ?
conserve heat (goosebumps, decreases surface area)
Increase heat loss (sweat)
produce heat (shiver)
Name five locations for core temperature
- Tympanic Membrane
– Pulmonary Artery
– Urinary Bladder
Name some surface temperature locations.
What are acceptable temperature ranges in C and F?
: 36 – 38 degrees C or 96.8 – 100.4 F
Average oral/tympanic:37 C (98.6 F)
: 37.5 C (99.5 F)
: 36.5 C (97.7 F)
Factors affecting temperature....
Age and Sex- old and babies,females fluctuate because of hormones,
Exercise-increases need for energy in cells
Define hyperthermia and hypothermia
Hyperthermia (high temp because of environment)
Hypothermia (severely low temp because of environment)
Name four temperature conditions
Hypothermia-below 35 C or 95 F
Afebrile-normal body temp
Pyrexia-with fever 38 C or 100.4 F
Hyperpyrexia- Above 41 C or 105.8 F
Four types of fevers
Remittent- fluctuating above normal but never comes down to normal
Relapsing-returns to normal for at least 24 hrs then recurs
Intermittent-alternating between febrile and afebrile
Types of Thermometers (7)
Electronic, Tympanic, Glass, Disposable, Temperature-Sensitive (patches or tape), Automated Monitoring Devices, Temporal Artery Thermometers
After you have determined the correct site to take a temperature, what situations may affect a correct reading?
Exercise, smoking, chewing gum, infection, drinking
What are some interventions for fever?
– Administer antipyretic meds (Dr’s prescription)
– Limit physical activity
– Reduce external covering
– Keep clothing and bed linen dry
– Encourage Intake of Oral Fluids/Food
– Encourage or provide Oral care
– Control environmental temperature
- (do not induce shivering)
What are some pulse rate ranges? High, Normal, and Low
What are the numbers and descriptions for pulse amplitude?
– 0 = Absent
- 1+ = Thready
– 2+ = Weak
– 3+ = Normal
– 4+ = Bounding
Definition of irregular pulse.
Irregular = Dysrhythmia
Where is the most common place to get a pulse? Name three other options.
2. Temporal-side of head
7. Popliteal-behind knees, harder to find palpitations
8. Posterior tibial-inner aspect of ankle
9. Dorsalis Pedis (Pedal)-top of foot
What is the instrument and position one uses to get an apical pulse?
Need stethoscope to listen
5th intercostal space/left mid-clavicular, off apex of heart
How is the sound of the heart described and what is happening physiologically?
(lub-dub) opening and closing of valves S1 (lub-opening of tricuspid) S2 (dub-closed tricuspid, open bicuspid)
What is a pulse deficit?
Pulse deficit (Apical rate – radial rate)
What are the three terms and rates for respiration? (Normal, high, low)
Eupnea 12-20 breaths/min
Tachypnea > 24 breaths/min
Bradypnea < 10 breaths/min
Define hypervetilation, hypoventilation, Cheyne-Stokes, Biot's
Hyperventilation-increased rate of breathing, deeply
Hypoventilation-decreased rate and decreased depth
Cheyne-Stokes- deep rapid breathing with periods of apnea (drug over doses, act of dying)
Biot’s- same as Cheyne Stokes only a little more irregular
Percentage of oxygen that is normal in a pulse oximetery.
To assess respiratory rate, count breaths the last ____ seconds of taking a pulse.
The Physiology of Movement involves what two systems?
Coordinated functioning of the muscular skeletal and nervous systems
List some correct Application of Body Mechanics
Use the biggest and strongest muscles
Use internal girdle and long midriff
Work as closely as possible to the object
Use the weight of the body as a force
Slide, roll, push or pull rather than lift
Spread -feet apart, flex knees
Face in same direction of where you are moving
Work on level surface;
move bed flat then move patient, move bed back into place.
What is the maximum weight per person to lift?
Mobility contributes to:
Healthy functioning of each body system.
What are the hazards of immobility?
Physiological-build up of secretions in lung, skin breakdown,
Psychological-depression, decreased appetite, muscle atrophy, urinary (increased calcium from immobile bones)
Terms asscoiated with impaired mobility.
Paresis- impaired or weak muscle strength
Hemiparesis-impaired or weak muscle strength on one side
Paralysis-inability to move
Hemiplegia-inability to move one side of the body
Paraplegia- inability to move lower extremities
Quadriplegia-inability to move lower and top extremeties
Types of joints in the body.
Ball and socket-shoulder and hip, flexion-extension, abduction adduction, rotation
Condyloid joint-wrist- flexion-extension, abduction, adduction
Gliding joint- carpal bones of wrist and tarsal bones of feet
Hinge joint- only flexion –extension e.g. elbow knee and ankle
Saddle joint-side to side, back and forth (thumb)
Types of range of motion.
active –by patient
passive- nurse does, no increase in muscle to
Active-Assisted- both nurse and patient
Proper ROM procedures.
follow proper body mechanics
provide privacy and warmth
make eye contact with patient
ROM to the point of resistance but not pain
opposition of thumb to fingers
Common devices to correct improper body alignment.
Pillows, mattresses, adjustable beds, trapeze bars, hand rolls, trochanter rolls, hand-wrist splints, high top sneakers;
Common bed angles and positions.
Low or Semi-Fowler’s-30 degree
High Fowler’s-90 degree, breathing problems or dysnea, aspiration precautions
Protective Supine-laying on back, pillow head, calves, arm
Protective Sidelying- pillow behind back, between knees,one in front
Protective Prone- under stomach, shins,
Protective Sims- not on back not on front, knee up and over a pillow
Procedures for ambulating a patient.
Dangling-seated on the side of the bed with legs dangling, orthostatic hypertension, prevents fainting, gives body a chance to adjust blood pressure
nonskid- footwear/Safe environment
Gait belt-goes around middle of patient
Walk on affected/weak side slightly behind patient
Name three mechanical aids for walking.
Crutches, cane, walker
How to use a walker.
the walker should extend from the floor to the patient’s hipjoint
elbows should be flexed 30’
– For stability
– Affected side
elbows should be flexed 30’
: hold on opposite side of affected side
support of body weight should come primarily on the hands and arms while using the crutchesnot in the axillary area where pressure can damage nerves
Need to be properly fitted