IBHS Test2: RICHARD1

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fellonalog
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34188
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IBHS Test2: RICHARD1
Updated:
2010-09-14 00:24:23
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IBHS
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Dr. Richard-StemCells&Cancer
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  1. Steam Punk
    blending of the old and the new
  2. different categories of stem cells
    • Pre-Blastocyst Stem Cells
    • Embryonic->Adult stem cells
  3. each cell can develop into ANY cell type
    Totipotent
  4. each cell can develop into a LIMITED selection of cell types
    Pluripotent (slightly differentiated)
  5. where do new cells come from?
    Stem Cells
  6. pre-blastocyst Stem Cells
    Totipotent
  7. embryonic->Adult Stem Cells
    Pluripotent
  8. stem cells inside bone marrow
    Hematopoetic stem cells
  9. what cells can come from hematopoetic stem cell?
    • Macrophages
    • Neutrophils
    • Basophils
    • Eosinophils
    • Platelets
    • RBCs
    • Plasma Cells
    • T Cells
    • NK cells
  10. IMMORTAL cells
    Stem Cells
  11. different sources used for stem cells
    Bone Marrow
  12. Contemporary Stem Cell Therapies
    Bone Marrow Transplantation
  13. what is chemotherapy?
    • Systemic toxin that inhibits cells that divide rapidly?
    • will inhibit many stem cell types
  14. Anemia
    • lack of Fe in blood
    • means they need more RBCs
  15. good/bad about
    Bone Marrow Transplant
    • Good: Concentrated source of hematopoietic stem cells
    • Bad: Needs to be close genetic match AND Painfull
  16. good/bad about
    Blood Transplant
    • Good: less painful than Bone Marrow transplant
    • Bad: Needs to be close genetic match AND dilute source
  17. good/bad about
    Cord Blood
    • (from newborn baby)
    • Good: Concentrated source of hematopoietic stem cells
    • Real Good: Does not need to be as close of a genetic match!
    • why? B/c not as differentiated as an adult.
  18. pros/cons about
    Embryonic Stem Cells
    • Pros: easy to isolate
    • easy to coax to another cell type
    • Cons: Controversy of sourced
    • Surplus blastocysts from IVF treatments
    • Aborted or miscarried embryos/fetuses
  19. pros/cons about
    Adult stem cells
    • Pros: Less controversy about sources (found in most tissues)
    • Cons: Hard to isolate,
    • Less easy to coax to another cell type
  20. general controversies about stem cells
    • very political-abortion
    • whether scientists can use stem cells from
    • aborted or miscarried embryos/fetuses
    • surplus blastocysts from IVF treatments.
  21. 2001
    isolated adult stem cells from Liposuctioned fat
  22. 2006
    (nature) isolated single stem cell from embryo without harming it
  23. 2007
    • (Nature Biotech) isolated embryonic stem cells from HUMAN AMNIOTIC FLUID
    • (Science) Isolated stem cells from newborn foreskin cells
    • (J of Translat. Med) Isolated adult stem cells from menstruated endometrium
    • (Cell) Coaxed Adult Cheek Cell into 200 different cell types
  24. where are stem cells in your body?
    EVERYWHERE
  25. potential Stem cell therapies
    • Human Neuronal Cells for:
    • Parkinsons
    • Spinal Cord injury
    • Alzheimers
  26. theory of stem cells as origins of cancer
    • when they loose regulation can become cancer
    • confirmed: they are the source of many cancers.
    • Leukemia (way too many WBCs)(hematopoietic stem cells)
    • Breast Cancer
    • Brain Cancer
    • Prostate Cancer
    • Ovarian Cancer
    • Colon Cancer
    • Pancreatic cancer
  27. difference between proliferation and differentiation
    • Proliferation is multiplying rapidly vs.
    • Differentiation is cells becoming specialized to perform specific jobs.
  28. proliferation
    multiplying rapidly
  29. differentiation
    • Differentiation is cells becoming specialized to perform specific jobs.
    • different from cell before
  30. something external comes along and kills cells
    NECROSIS
  31. new cell type
    cancer
  32. apo
    case of
  33. ptosis
    drooping eyelids
  34. apoptosis
    normal cellular death
  35. Which cells live the entire lifetime of the organism?
    • Oocytes (eggs)
    • Neurons
    • Muscle cells
  36. how long do bone cells live?
    ~25 years
  37. how long do lymphocytes live (WBCs)?
    ~1 year
  38. How long do RBCs live?
    ~120 days=4months (then liver breaks down)
  39. How long do skin cells live?
    ~1 month
  40. How long do platelets live?
    ~10 days
  41. How long do colon cells live?
    ~3 days
  42. How long do stomach cells live?
    ~2 days
  43. How long do spermatozoa live?
    ~2 days
  44. Cellular Life and Death:
    Longest to
    Shortest (cell life)
    • Oocytes, Neurons, Muscle Cells
    • Bone Cells
    • Lymphocytes
    • RBCs
    • Skin Cells
    • Plateletts
    • Colon Cells
    • Stomach Cells
    • Spermatozoa
  45. Important to life of an organism
    Cell Death
  46. Why do colon cells only live a few days?
    • Bacteria
    • Enzymes
  47. cellular Homicide or
    traumatic accident
    Necrosis
  48. fast death
    kill and spill
    Necrosis
  49. response from Necrosis
    Inflammation
  50. what causes inflammation
    • WBCs rush over to clean up cell death
    • water comes in
  51. response from Apoptosis
    • minimal
    • macrophages come along
    • envelop it.
    • break up more
  52. death due to Old age or "seppuku"
    natural and purposeful
    apoptosis
  53. programmed cell death
    apoptosis
  54. Why would cells want to die?
    • Apoptosis:
    • Old age
    • senses Mutations
    • senses chemicals
    • senses microbes invade
    • KNOWS it needs to DIE to protect body.
    • Necrosis:
    • Physical/Mechanical
    • Chemicals
    • Microbes invade
  55. Seppuku
    • Hari Kari
    • Japanese warriors killing themselves for the greater good.
  56. Stem Cells vs.
    Tumor Cells
    • SIMILAR:
    • High Rate of Proliferation
    • May remain Quiescent for long time
    • Resistant to Apoptosis
    • 1)enhanced Telomerase activity
    • 2)Enhanced DNA repair activities
    • 3)membrane bound transporters that exclude foreign antigens better and more so than other cell types

    DIFFERENT:
  57. May not replicate for a long time until triggered
    Quiescent
  58. Why is it so bad that stem cells may be the cause of all tumor cells?
    • their high rate of proliferation
    • may remain quiescent for long time
    • Resistance to Apoptosis makes them extremely difficult to kill!
    • -resistant to chemotherapeutic agents
    • -you must come close to killing the patient to kill the cancer
    • only difference between stem cells and tumor cells is
    • ABNORMAL
  59. benign
    • Good
    • REMAINS WITHIN CONNECTIVE TISSUE AREA
    • less threatening, can be removed via surgery
    • technically NOT Cancer
  60. malignant
    • spreads to other tissues
    • More threatening than benign. difficult to remove
    • technically CANCER
  61. TUMOR
    • (NEOPLASM)
    • -a mass or swelling produced by abnormal cell growth and division
  62. how many tumor types?
    100+ known. (about 100 types of stem cells)
  63. ***tumor of any epithelial cells
    ***Carcinoma
  64. tumor of glandular epithelia
    ADENOCARCINOMA
  65. Tumor of Connective Tissue
    • Leukemia-WBCs and precursors
    • Chondroma-cartilage
    • Osteoma-bone
  66. how do you say malignant?
    --SARCOMA
  67. how does a malignant tumor spread to other sites?
    gets into the circulation.
  68. difference between cancer incidence and mortality with high/low examples of each
  69. carcinogens and affected tissue types
  70. difference between benign and malignant neoplasms
  71. benign
  72. malignant
  73. pathophisiology of cancer
  74. how do oncogenes create cancer cells?
  75. explain and give examples of different cancer types
  76. general methods of cancer identification and treatment
  77. Cancer
    • rapidly growing mass of tissue that
    • invades surrounding tissues
    • escapes immune surveillance
    • connects itself to the blood supply of the host
    • steals glucose and oxygen
    • interferes with adjacent organs
    • makes the host sick
    • possibly leads to death of host
  78. how many different cell types are in a normal healthy adult/baby at birth?
    300 cell types
  79. anti-cancer drugsand how they interfere with DNA or cell replication
  80. Pro-hormone drug
    Prednisone
  81. corticosteroid that inhibits cytokine production
    Prednisone
  82. Anti-hormone
    Tamoxifen
  83. estrogen receptor antagonist for some tissues
    Tamoxifen
  84. Anti-tumor cell surface
    Trastuzumab
  85. Trastuzumab
    Antibody that binds to HER2 on breast cancer cells
  86. Anti-tumor cell signaling
    Imatinib
  87. Imatinib
    Inhibits a tyrosine kinase
  88. Anti-mitosis
    Paclitaxel
  89. Paclitaxel
    Inhibits tubulin from depolymerizing
  90. Anti-metabolites
    • Methotrexate
    • 6-Mercaptopurine
    • 5-Fluorouracil
    • Irinotecan
    • Etoposide
  91. Inhibits formulation of precursors of nucleotides
    Methotrexate
  92. Inhibits purine synthesis
    6-mercaptopurine
  93. Inhibits DNA/RNA synthesis
    5-fluorouracil
  94. Inhibits Toposiomerase I
    Irinotecan
  95. Inhibits Topoisomerase II
    Etoposide
  96. Anti-DNA
    • Cyclophosphamide
    • Cisplatin
    • Doxyrubicin
    • Bleomycin
  97. Cross-links DNA
    Cyclophosphamide
  98. Cross-links DNA (RNA and protein also)
    Cisplatin
  99. Intercalates into DNA, inhibits Topoisomerase II
    Doxorubicin
  100. formulation of free radicals-> damages DNA
    Bleomycin

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