AP II

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heplac
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34221
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AP II
Updated:
2010-09-12 18:57:07
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The Heart
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  1.  




    Fist sized, hollow, cone-shaped, 250 to 350 grams
    The Heart
  2.  




    Placed in the thoracic medial cavity (mediastinum)
    The Heart
  3.  




    Extends obliquely, tilted left, for 12 to 14 cm from the second rib to the fifth intercostal space
    The Heart
  4.  




    It rests on the superior surface of the diaphragm and

    Lies anterior to the vertebral column and posterior to the sternum.
    The Heart
  5. The lungs are on the lateral side
    The Heart
  6.  




    It's Tip (called apex), is the point of maximal intensity
    The Heart
  7.  




    The heart wall is a double-walled sac called
    the pericardium
  8. The loosely fitting superficial part of the sac is call fibrous pericadium: Is tough, dense connective tissue layer designed to do three things
    • 1. Potects the heart
    • 2. anchors it to surrounding structures
    • 3. prevents overfilling of the heart with blood
  9. The loosely fitting superficial part of the sac is called
    fibrous pericadium
  10. The heart wall composed of three layers
    epicardium, myocardium and the endocardium
  11. The superficial epicardium is the visceral layer of what? Often filtrated with fat, especially in older people.
    serous pericadium
  12.  



    The heart wall is rich in blood supply, and made up of what kind of tissue?
    connective tissue
  13.  




    the heart wall middle layer, has cardiac muscle, involved in contraction, form crisscrossing tissue fibers and arranged in spiral or circular bundles
    Myocardum
  14.  




    Located in the heart wall is a sheet of squamous epithelium on a thin connective tissue layer.
    Endocardium
  15.  

     






    Located on the inner myocardial surface of the heart wall





    Located on the inner myocardial surface
    •covers the fibrous skeleton of the valves.
    Endocardium
  16. The layer lines the heart chambers
    endocardium
  17.  






    Part of the heart wall this layer covers the fibrous skeleton of the valves.
    Endocardium
  18. How many chambers of the heart
    4
  19. What are the 4 chambers of the heart
    •  
    • two superior atria and (artium - single)
    • two inferior ventricles
  20.  




    This separates the atria longitudinally L and R
    Interatrial septum
  21.  



    This separates the ventricles.
    Interventricular septum
  22.  




    This ventricle forms most of the anterior surface
    The right ventricle
  23.  




    This ventricle dominates the inferoposterior aspect of the heart and forms the heart apex.
    The left ventricle
  24. Otherwise known as the Receiving Chambers
    Atria
  25.  




    it's Left and Right chambers, are small and thin-walled
    Atria
  26.  




    In this chamber is pushes blood "downstairs" into the ventricles, low pressure
    Atria
  27.  




    Blood enters the right atrium via these three veins
     






    superior vena cavareturns, the inferior vena cavareturns, and the coronary sinus
  28.  






    This vein returns blood to the heart from the body regions superior to the diaphragm
    superior vena cavare
  29.  






    The vein returns blood to the heart from body areas below the diaphragm
    inferior vena cava
  30.  






    This vein collects blood from the myocardium.
    the coronary sinus
  31. How many pulmonary veins enter the left atrium, transporting blood from the lungs back to the heart
    Four
  32. What veins enter the left atrium? transporting blood from the lungs back to the heart
    pulmonary veins
  33. Using the pulmonary veins blood enter the left atriumfrom where?
    The lungs
  34. Also know as the Discharging Chambers
    Ventricles
  35.  




    make up most of the volume of the heart
    the ventricles
  36.  




    It's internal walls have irregular ridges of muscle trabeculae carneae "crossbars of flesh", massive
    The Ventricles
  37.  




    Cone-like papillary muscles play a role in valve function, project into this cavity
    ventricle
  38.  




    The Left ventricle contracts to propel blood out of the heart into circulation via the?
    Aorta
  39. this is the largetst artery
    Aorta
  40. Which chamber pumps blood into the pulmonary trunk?
    Right Ventricle
  41. The right ventricle pumps blood into this; which routes the blood to the lungs where gas exchange occurs.
    Pulmonary trunk
  42.  




    The R ventricle pumps blood into the pulmonary trunk, to the lungs for this reason?
    gas exchange
  43.  




    The blood vessels that carry blood to and from the lungs for gas exchange is called what circuit
    Pulmonary
  44.  




    The blood vessels that carry blood supply to and from all body tissues is part of what circuit.
    Systemic
  45.  




    The functional blood supply to the myocardium; is the shortest circulation in the body
    Coronary Circulation
  46.  




    Function of the left side of the heart
    Systemic Circulation
  47.  




    This pathway of Oxygenated blood from the lungs to the LA to LV, pumped into the aorta
    The systemic circulation
  48.  




    From the Aorta to smaller systemic arteries to the body tissues, where gases and nutrients are exchanged across the capillary walls support what pathway
    Systemic Circulation
  49.  




    Blood loaded with CO2 and depleted of O2, returns through the systemic veins to the R side of the heart
    Systemic Circuit
  50.  




    Through the superior and inferior venae cavae, the RA receives blood from what circuit
    Systemic
  51.  




    smaller systemic arteries carry to the body tissues, where gases and nutrients are exchanged across the capillary walls. As blood loaded with CO2 and depleted of O2, returns through the systemic veins to the R side of the heart, entering the RA through the superior and inferior venae cavae. This happens how often?
    This cycle repeats itself continuously.
  52.  




    Function of the right side of the heart
  53. Pulmonary Circulation
  54.  




    Blood returning from the body is O2 poor and CO2 rich in what circuit
    Pulmonary
  55.  




    From RA to RV, then to lungs the blood uses this
    the pulmonary trunk
  56.  




    In the lungs, the blood unloads CO2 and picks up O2 during this circulation
    Pulmonary
  57.  




    The freshly oxygenated blood is carried by the pulmonary veins back to the left side of the heart during this circulation
    Pulmonary
  58. True or false: the Pulmonary circulation pumps handles more blood volume than the Systemic Circulation
    False they have Equal volumes of blood handle however they have unequal workloads.
  59.  




    Via the RV, this is a short, low-pressure circulation
    Pulmonary
  60.  




    via the LV, the blood takes a long pathway, encounters 5x friction, or resistance to blood flow in what circuit
    Systemic
  61.  




    The walls of the LV (which are nearly circular) are how many time as thick as compared to the wall of the RV
    three times
  62.  




    Which ventricle generates much more pressure than the other and is a far more powerful pump
    Left ventricle
  63.  




    The arterial supply of the coronary circulation is by which arteries, both arising from the base of the aorta and encircling the heart in the coronary sulcus
    the R and L coronary arteries
  64.  




    The LCA toward the L side of the heart and then divides into its major branches:
    the anterior interventricular artery (aka left anterior descending artery) and the circumflex artery
  65.  






    follows the anterior interventricular sulcus and supplies blood to the interventricular septum and anterior walls of both ventricles
     






    left anterior descending artery (aka anterior interventricular)
  66.  






    Supplies blood to the left atrium and the posterior walls of the left ventricle.
    circumflex artery
  67.  




    The RCA courses to the right side of the heart, where it also divides into two branches
    the marginal artery and the posterior interventricular artery
  68.  






    the artery that supplies blood to myocardium of the lateral right side of the heart
    the marginal artery
  69.  






    this artery runs to the heart apex and supplies the posterior ventricular walls
    The posterior interventricular artery
  70.  






    Near the apex, this artery merges (anastomoses) with the anterior interventricular artery
     






    posterior interventricular artery
  71.  






    Together these branches of the RCA supply the right atrium and nearly all the right ventricle with blood
    the marginal artery and the posterior interventricular artery
  72. Blood flows in how many directions through the heart.
    one: from atria to ventricles and out the great arteries leaving the superior aspect of the heart
  73. how many valves in the heart
    4
  74.  




    There are 4 valves that open and close in response to what on their two sides?
    differences in blood pressure
  75. Two of the four vales are located where?
     




    Atrial-ventricular junction
  76. The two valves at the Atrial-ventricular junction are designed to do what?
     




    prevent backflow into the atria when the ventricles are contracting
  77. the right AV valve (Atrial-ventricular) has three flexible cusps (flaps of endocardium reinforced by connective tissue cores) the valve is called what?
     




    tricuspid valve
  78. The left AV valve (atrioventricular), with two flaps, is called
     




    mitral or the bicuspid valve
  79.  




    Two semilunar valves (half-moon)
  80. The aortic and the The pulmonary
  81.  






    The valve that guards the bases of the aorta and prevent backflow into LV.
     






    The aortic
  82.  






    This valve guards the bases of pulmonary artery and prevent backflow into RV
     






    The pulmonary
  83.  




    What is the role of Cardiac skeletal muscles?
    blood pumping
  84.  




    Large mitochondria account for how much of the volume of cardiac cells (only 2% in skeletal muscle)
    25–35% of the volume of cardiac cells
  85. What gives cardiac cells a high resistance to fatigue.
     




    Large mitochondria
  86.  




    Cardiac muscle cells are self-excitableand can initiate their own what
    depolarization
  87. Cardiac muscle cells initiate their own depolarization in a spontaneous and rhythmic way called what
    automaticity or autorhythmicity
  88.  




    In cardiac muscle, the heart either contracts as a unit or what happens?
    doesn’t contract at all
  89.  




    The ability of cardiac muscle to depolarize and contract is
    intrinsic -autonomous
  90. The depolarization wave travels across the heart from cell to cell via ion passage throught what type junction
    Gap
  91.  




    An impulse (electrical excitation) located in the RA wall, excites ~ 75 times every minute
     




    Sinoatrial node (SA)
  92.  




    Sinoatrial node (SA) sets the pace for the heart (pacemaker) and its rhythm is called?
    Sinus rhythm
  93. Sinus rhythm determines what
    heart rate.
  94.  




    From the SA node, the depolarization wave spreads via atrial gap junctions to the what?
     




    Atrioventricular node (AV)
  95.  




    From the AV node, the impulse sweeps to this in the superior part of the interventricular septum (leads into the R and Left bundle branches)-apex.
     




    Atrioventricular bundle
  96.  




    impulse passes through long strands of barrel-shaped cells, penetrate into the heart apex, and then turn superiorly into the ventricular walls.
     




    Purkinje fibers
  97.  




    is a tracing of a single action potential of heart activity
     




    Electrocardiogram(ECG or EKG)
  98.  




    ECG has three distinguishable waves or deflections, what are they
    P Wave, QRS complex and the T wave
  99.  






    This wave lasts 0.08s, movement of the depolarization wave from the SA node through the atria
    P Wave
  100.  






    0.1 s after the P wave begins, what contracts?
    the atria
  101.  






    This results from ventricular depolarization and precedes ventricular contraction, lasts 0.08 s.
    QRS complex
  102.  






    This is caused by ventricular repolarization and lasts 0.16 s.
    T Wave
  103.  






    Why is theT wave more spread out and has a lower amplitude
    because Repolarization is slower than depolarization
  104.  






    What is the time called (about 0.16 s) from the beginning of atrial excitation to the beginning of ventricular excitation
    The P-Q interval
  105.  




    1 contraction (systole)and 1 relaxation (diastole)
    The Cardiac Cycle
  106. The contraction and relaxation periods during a cardiac cycle is called
    systole and diastole (respectively)
  107.  




    At what point does the atria contract, compress the blood, rise in atrial pressure, pushes blood from the atria to the ventricles.
     




    Following depolarization
  108.  




    When the ventricles are in the last part of their diastole and have the maximum volume of blood they will contain in the cycle, a volume called
     




    end diastolic volume (EDV)
  109.  




    When the atria relax and the ventricles depolarize
     




    QRS complex (part of the cardiac cycle)
  110.  




    Contraction of the ventricles -closing the AV valves.
     




    Ventricular systole
  111.  




    for a split second, the ventricles are completely closed chambers and blood volume in the chambers remains constant
     




    Isovolumetric contraction
  112.  




    During this ventricular ejection phase, the aortic pressure is
    120 mm Hg
  113.  




    brief phase following the T wave -the ventricles relax.
     




    Isovolumetric relaxation - early diastole
  114. When the ventricles relax during early diastole the blood remaining in their chambers is referred to as
    end systolic volume (ESV)
  115. Pressures: Systemic Aortic or Arterial
  116. Systolic –120 mm Hg;Diastolic: 80 mm Hg
  117.  




    Pressure: Pulmonary arterial
  118. Systolic -24 mm Hg;Diastolic: 8 mm Hg
  119. True or False do the two sides of the heart eject the same blood volume with each heartbeat
    True
  120.  




    defined as the volume of blood pumped out by one ventricle with each beat, is correlated with the force of ventricular contraction
     




    Stroke volume
  121.  




    is the amount of blood pumped out by each ventricle in 1 minute.
    ? = HR x SV
     




    Cardiac output (CO)
  122. what is the Normal resting values for the heart beat and the stroke volume.
    HR 75 beats/min; SV 70 ml/beat
  123. True or False: the SV tends not to be relatively constant
    False
  124. The increase of the heart rate is also called
    positive chronotropic factor
  125. The decrease of the heart rate is also known as
    Negative chronotropic factor
  126.  




    imbalances of this pose real dangers to the heart
     




    Plasma electrolyte, especially K
  127.  




    enhances heart rate and contractility.
    Epinephrine
  128.  




    increases metabolic rate and body heat production.
    Thyroxine
  129.  






    When released in large quantities, this causes a slower but more sustained increase in heart rate than that caused by epinephrine
     




    Thyroxine

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