F & E

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  1. Major cation in ECF
  2. Flat P waves, prolonged PR intervals, widened QRS complexes and tall peaked T waves.
  3. inverted T waves, ST segment depression and prominent U waves.
  4. sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium
  5. chloride, bicarbinate, phosphate, sulfate, organic acids, proteinate
  6. pressure exerted by fluid on the walls of the blood vessel
    hydrostatic pressure
  7. natural tenency of a substance to move from an area of higher concentration to one of lower concentration. Random movements of ions and molecules.
  8. solution with osmolality higher than that of serum
    hypertonic solution
  9. solution with an osmolality lower than that of serum
    hypotonic solution
  10. solution with same osmolality as serum and other body fluids.
    isotonic solution.
  11. loss of ECF volume exceeds the intake of fluid. Water and electrolytes lost in same proportion as they exist in normal body fluids.
    hypovolemia/fluid volume deficit
  12. caused by abdominal fluid losses ie N/V/D, GI suctioning, sweating, decreased intake, inability to gain access to fluids
    Hypovolemia/ fluid volume deficit
  13. acute weight loss, decreased skin turgor, oliguria, concentrated urine, postural hypotension, a weak/rapid heart rate, flattened neck veins, decreased central venous pressure, clammy skin, thirst, increased temp, cramps
  14. occurs with GI and renal losses
  15. occurs with adrenal insufficiency
  16. occurs with increased thirst and ADH release
  17. results from increased insensible losses and diabetes insipidus
  18. Vital signs: Hypothermia, tachycardia, thready pulse, hypotension,orthostatic hypotension. Neuromusculoskeletal: Headache, confusion, lethargy, muscle weakness to the point of possible respiratory compromise, fatigue, decreased deepmuscle reflexes (DTR)GI: Increased motility, hyperactive bowel sounds, abdominal cramping,nausea
  19. seizure precautions
  20. Compensatory mechanisms include increased thirst and increased production ofADH.
  21. -Vital signs: Hyperthermia, tachycardia, orthostatic hypotension
    -Neuromusculoskeletal: Restlessness, irritability, muscle twitching to thepoint of muscle weakness including respiratory compromise, increased deepmuscle reflexes (DTR) to the point of absent DTRs, seizures, coma
    -GI: Thirst, dry mucous membranes, increased motility, hyperactive bowelsounds, abdominal cramping, nausea
    -Other signs: Edema, warm flushed skin, oliguria
  22. 2 drug groups that contain magnesium and could cause hypermagnesemia are?
    laxatives and antacids
  23. sodium promotes ____ loss
    calcium: so calcium shouldnt be diluted in normal saline solution.
  24. S/S: flabby muscles, pain over bony areas and kidney stones
  25. solution contains calcium and potassium in addition to sodium chloride. Used to correct dehydration and sodium depletion and replace GI Losses
    Lactated Ringers
Card Set
F & E
fluid and electrolytes
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