psych test1

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psych test1
2010-09-12 14:32:13

ch 1 2 3
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  1. structualism
    school of thought concerned with analyzing sensations and personal experiences into basic elements
  2. functualism
    school of psychology concerned with how behavior and mental abilities help people adapt to their enviornments
  3. brain
    physical organincased in the head something we can touch and feel
  4. mind
    tangible we cant touch it it controls our feelings and thoughts
  5. behaviorism
    school of psychology that emphasizes the study of overt behavior
  6. psychoanalysis
    a freudian approach to psychotherapy emphasizing the exploration of unconcious conflicts
  7. psychiatrist
    has training in psychiatry treats mental disorders
  8. psychologist
    gets PHD training only in psychology treats depression
  9. humanism
    an approach to psychology that focuses on human experience problems, potentials, and ideas
  10. unconditioned stumulus
    a stimulus innately capable of producing response
  11. conditioned stimulus
    evokes a response bc it has been repetedly paired with an unconditioned stumulous
  12. theory
    logical explanation for all of the relavant data or facts scientists have observed regarding natural phenominon
  13. hypothesis
    statement proposing the existence of a relationship b/t the variables
  14. case study
    method of research that involves in-depth study of one or more subjects who are examined individually
  15. sample
    selected segment of a larger population that is being studied in psycological research
  16. representative sample
    sample in which critical subgroups are represented according to their incidence in the larger population that the researcher is studying
  17. random sample
    an unbased person or group is selected for survey data and may be obtained in 2 major ways: orally(face2face or phone) or written form(paper and pencil questionaire)
  18. observational method
    where researchers observe subject as they go about their usual activities or in a natural setting such as their home
  19. observer bias
    when a observer reads too much into the situation than is actually there or they see what they want to see
  20. observer effect
    subjects behavior may be affected or changed bc they are aware that someone is watching them
  21. correlational method
    research method that uses statistical techniques to determine the degree of relationship bt variables
  22. coefficient of correlation
    • statistic used to describe the amount and type of relationship bt 2 or more variables.
    • (pos. cor. variables vary together in the same direction. neg. cor. the opposite)
  23. experimental (research) method
    subj. are confronted with specific stimuli under precisely controlled conditions that allow their reactions to be reliably measured
  24. indep. variable
    a condition or factor the experimenter manipulates
  25. depen. vairiable
    the behavior that results from manipulation of an independent variable that is measured and recorded
  26. experimental group
    a group that are exposed to diff. varieties of ind. variables so that the resulting behavior can be compared
  27. control group
    group wh receive all the same conditions of the exp. group except for the key factor (indep. variable) the researcher is evaluating
  28. statistics
    mathematical methods for describing and interpreting data
  29. descriptive statistics
    mathematical and graphical methods for reducing data to a form that can be readily understood
  30. inferential statistics
    process of using mathematical procedures to draw conclusions about the meaning of research data
  31. mean
    avg. of all scores, add all scores and divide by the total # of scores
  32. median
    score that is in the middle of the #'s that are arranged form lowest to highest
  33. mode
    the # that appears most often
  34. standard deviation
    how much each indiv. score disappears from the avg. (mean)
  35. range
    the diff. bt the highest and lowest score
  36. percentile
    the %'s of scores that fall below a particular score
  37. normal distribution
    where the scores are distributed similar on both sides of the middle value so they have and appearance of a bell shaped curve when graphed
  38. statistical significance
    research reults where changes in the depen. variable can be attrubuted with a high level of confidence to the experimental condition being manipulated by the researcher
  39. suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)
    the hypothalamus(the point where the optic tracts from each eye intersect) is and important neural structure that functions as a biological clock.
  40. REM
    (rapid eye movement) state of sleep characterized by rapid eye movements and often associated with sleep
  41. when do we reach REM sleep?
    when we have went trough all 4 stages of the sleep cycle
  42. SLEEP
    stage 1:
    • -light sleep that occurs just after dozing off
    • -characterized by brain waves called theta waves (low amptidude brain waves)
  43. SLEEP
    stage 2:
    • -drift off into a deeper sleep after stage 1
    • -brief bursts of brain activity called sleep spindles
    • -k complex (low frequency high amptitude wave occurs to a response such as a voice)
  44. SLEEP
    stage 3:
    • -30 to 45 min after falling asleep the cycle progresses into an even deeper level of sleep
    • -high amptitude brain waves
  45. SLEEP
    stage 4:
    • -deepest level of sleep
    • -difficult to arouse someone in this stage
    • -virtually no eye movement
    • -delta waves
  46. reticular activating system (RAS)
    • pathway of neurons that originates in the medula and extends to the cortex
    • (part of the brain that makes us awake)
  47. raphe system
    • seritonin containing nuerons that extends throughout a large part of our brain
    • -suppresses the RAS
    • -becomes most active at the time of sleep onset
  48. what are the neurotransmitters of arousal and sleep?
    acetycholine and norepineephrine
  49. acetycholine
    neurons originating in the basal forebrain, activate cortical structures that are essential to ongoing behavior and thought processes
  50. norepineephrine
    the primary neurotransmitter of RAS
  51. what are the theories of why we need sleep?
    • -to conserve energy
    • -to avoid predation
    • -for restoration
    • -for memory
  52. dream interpretation
    the true meaning that occurs in symbolism
  53. what are the 2 kinds of content in our dreams? what do they mean?
    • manifest content-dreams we remember
    • latent content- actual hidden meaning of our dreams
  54. what are some sleep didorders?
    • -insomnia
    • -sleep apnea
    • -narcolepsy
    • -nightmares
    • -night terrors
    • -sleep walking
    • -sleep talking
  55. hypnosis
    state of altered consciousness characterized by a deep relaxation and detachment as well as heightened suggestibility to hypnotists directives
  56. what are some phenomenon's of hypnosis?
    • -athletic ability
    • -relief of physical ailments
    • -pain relief
    • -memory enhancement
    • -posthypnotic suggestion- people preform a variety of diff actions then return to normal conciousness