Backflow of stomach contents through the lower esophageal sphincter (LES)
Antacids are used in the treatment of?
GERD (gastroesophageal reflux)
Alkaline chemical agents used for relief of symptoms associated with hyperacidity and PUD (peptic ulcer disease)?
Antacids do what?
Change pH in stomach from acidic to more basic (lowering acid content)
When taking antacids, it is important to remember...
Wait 2 hours to take an anacid after medication has been administered
Or take an antacid an hour before administering their medicines
With a tetracycline, an antacid should not be administered...
Within two hours of an oral dose
Antacids are capable of interacting with...
many other drugs
Bind to other drugs
Increase gsatric pH
Increase urinary pH
To minimize the likelihood of interactions between antacids and other drugs, patients should be advised...
To not take other oral medications within 1-2 hours from the time they are taking antacids
Administration with other drugs or food may reduce the absorption of these agents
With liquid antacid products...
Shake well prior to use
With Alkaseltzer, it has good antacid use; however, it contains what?
Aspirin, thus do not administer to people with peptic ulcers in stomach
H1 receptors agonists?
H2 receptors agonists?
These are some of the newest agents used to treat hyperacidity, GERD, and the damage caused by these conditions; and take a minimum of 3-4 days to work?
Proton Pump Inhibitors (Nexium, Prilosec, etc)
How long does it take for the stomach to completely empty?
These are used for short-term duodenal ulcer treatment (up to 8 weeks); they adhere to ulcer, forming an artifical scab, while healing with the proton pump inhibitors and antibiotics?
Metoclopramide is used for?
Prokinetic agent that is used for a prolonged emptying time (gastroparesis), which is a loss of tone of LES; it increases acetylcholine levels. Its major side effect is extra paramital side effects (tremors, problems with tongue, etc.)
Synthetic prostaglandin compound reported to decrease gastric acid secretion and possibly exert a protective effect on the mucosal surface of the stomach
Pancreatic enzymes are required for?
Proper digestion of fats, proteins, and complex carbohydrates
Lactase Enzyme (LactAid, Lactrase, Dairy Ease) is used for?
People with lactose intolerance; which is usually due to inadequate production of lactase enzyme, an enzyme that breaks down lactose into absorbale monosaccharides, such as glucose.
Antacids should be administered following?
Meals or a snach
Avoid the use of aspirin, ibuprofen, and naproxen in patients with?
Peptic ulcer disease
Avoid simultaneous administration of?
Antacids and antibiotics
Monitor patients taking cimetidine for?
Diarrhea, dizziness, rash, and confusion
Are agents used to induce vomiting
are given to prevent and to treat nausea and vomiting
Nausea and vomiting is usually caused by?
Ipecac syrup is not used in children less than a year old, and...
does not work unless large amounts of water (pref. salt water) is ingested along with it
Ipecac syrup is contraindicated with?
Both anticholinergic and antihistamine antiemetics can cause anticholinergic side effects, such as...
dry mouth, urinary retention, and blurred vision, not with glaucoma, and even constipation
Neuroleptic agents are?
What is the prototype drug for prokinetic agents?
With vertigo, what is it that makes you dizzy?
Eyes are seeing one thing, brain is receiving another message, causing nausea when the brain becomes confused
The serotonin-blocking agent Zofran is used for?
chemotherapy-related nausea and vomiting
Emetics are not administered to persons who have swallowed...
corrosive substances or oils or to those who are unconscious
A condition in which the passage of feces through the lower gastrointestinal (GI) tract is slow or nonexistent?
With cholinergic drugs...
Acetylcholine levels go up, increasing peristalsis for constipation (laxatives)
With anticholinergic drugs...
acetylcholine levels go down (diarrhea)
When digestion is hyperactive, colon doesn't absorb enough water, leading to abnormal levels of fluids and electrolytes, causing...
Stimulant laxatives increase...
the motility of the GI tract by chemical irritation of the intestinal mucosa or by a more selective action on specific nerves in the intestinal wall
These type of laxatives draw water through the intestinal wall by osmotic action and thereby increase the fluidity of the stool and stimulate greater inetestinal motility?
Saline laxatives (enemas)
Retention of an enema is dangerous, thus...
You must go after it and remove with a colon tube
This cleans out bowels in preparation for surgeries or exam preps such as a colonscopy?
Bulk forming laxatives must be...
taken with at least 8 ounces of water, and lots of continuous fluid consumption throughout the day
The most popular intestinal lubricant is...
liquid petrolatum (mineral oil); solid petrolatum is known as petroleum
Fecal wetting agents (docusate) are useful in cases where many other laxatives would be contraindicated...
e.g. in cardiac and debilitated patients
Rectal suppositories are usually inserted about...
Avoid stimulant laxatives in the...
You can disguise the taste of castor oil with...
Avoid rushing or distracting patients taking lubricant laxatives...
to avoid aspiration
Never administer laxatives to patients experiencing...
abdominal pain, nausea, or vomiting unless you have consulted a physician
Patients taking laxatives must consume at least 6-8 glasses of water...
to avoid dehydration
With antidiarrheal agents, you must monitor...
fluid intake and output; record information about frequency and nature of stools
Patients taking paregoric diphenoxylate HCl (Lomotil), difenoxin (Motofen), or loperamide (Imodium) for ....