• conspecific nest parasitism
• shared environments
• maternal effects
Partitioning genetic variation
VG =VA +VD
VA = additive genetic variation
VD = dominance genetic variation
What you should know about QTL mapping
• why is QTL mapping done?
• what are the general steps involved?
• why do parental genotypes need to be homozygous?
• why score phenotypes and genotypes in F2 offspring?
• what is the purpose of genetic markers?
• for QTLs that are physically linked to marker loci, what should the associations between phenotype and genotype look like?
Environmental factors that influence fitness are called:
Agents of selection
synonyms:selection factors, selection agents, selection pressures, selection environment, etc.
Traits evolve in response to agents of selection
to produce adaptations
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