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Declaration of Independence:
- Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Ben Franklin, Roger Sherman, and Robert Livingston were given the task of writing the Declaration of Independence.
- The first draft was written all by Jefferson.
- The first draft in June of 1776.
- The others made editorial changes.
- It is the most important document written.
- “self-evident” –was originally sacred and undeniable
- “all men” –Jefferson doesn’t limit his blessings to men who were rich or noble. Didn’t limit to men who were white. Didn’t limit it to only Americans. It almost includes women as well.
- “created”—implies a creator.
- “equal” –does not mean that everyone is equally talented.
- “liberty” –more liberties equals less focus on life.
- “life” –more focus on life is less liberty
- “pursuit of happiness” –the government is not responsible for your happiness.
- “consent of the governed”—Jefferson is alluding to contract theory and making fun of the British
- Contract Theory- If the King takes liberty away then he broke the contract and they get a new king.
- “alter or abolish” –we can change it.
- “duty” –people have the right/duty to overthrow a tyrannical government. Should they ever become destructive to the rights then it is our duty to abolish it and get a new one, according to Jefferson.
Civil War Casualties:
360,000 Union deaths; 258,000 Confederate deaths; I in 4 Southern men of military age.
Civil war ends. On April 9, 1865. Robert E. Lee surrenders.
John Wilkes Booth:
- Assassinated President Lincoln on April 14, 1865.
- Hid in an old warehouse, but was found and punished.
Election of 1876:
- Hayes (R) from Ohio vs. Tilden (D) from New York.
- Focused more on mudslinging than the actual issues.
- Democrats accused Republicans of corruption.
- Republicans strategy was ‘waving the bloody shirt’
- Very close election: Tilden won the popular vote by 300k
- Tilden – 184
- Hayes – 175
- 20 disputed electoral votes, all of them go to Hayes.
- Hayes wins.
Compromise of 1877
Democrats would allow Hayes to become president, but the government had to pull the remaining union army from the south. (Brings reconstruction to an end). Gradually the political rights of the blacks are taken away.
THE ENDING OF RECONSTRUCTION!
Positives of Reconstruction:
- Humanitarian aid—Freedman’s Bureau: gave aid to those displaced in war. 1st federal welfare program.
- Education reform—tax supported schools. Also 4000 black grade schools and colleges for blacks.
- More equitable taxes—Large plantations escaped taxes before, but not after reconstruction.
- Infrastructure improved—southern roads infrastructure was always worse than the northern ones. They built railroads (increased by 10x) levees, drain swamps, factories, roads, hospitals, schools, etc.
- Constitutional reform—13th 14th and 15th amendments. (13th: Abolished slavery, 14th: Rights of citizenship to blacks, 15th: Reinforce right to vote for blacks)
Great Failure of Reconstruction
- It failed to bring racial equality.
- Political gains were only temporary.
- North won the war, the South won the peace.
PLESSY V. FERGUSON
- Supreme Court ruled that it is ok to segregate as long as they were equal. Separate but equal.
- Black facilities were largely less ‘nice’ than whites’
“Lemonade Lucy” Hayes
President Hayes banned alcohol in the White House because of his wife.
after a political party wins an election, they give governmental jobs to the voters as a reward for working toward a victory.
- Shot President Garfield in the summer of 1881.
- Claimed he wasn’t the cause of the death because the doctors did more damage trying to get the bullet out of Garfield, which wasn’t even in a threatening location.
- Executed by hanging.
Pendleton Civil Service Act of 1883:
- Made governmental job candidates be examined and those who were the best got the job.
- Affected jobs like postmaster, state department, government, etc.
Election of 1884:
- J. G. Blaine (R) vs. G. Cleveland (D)
- Cleveland had had an affair with a widowed woman and she had a son and he had been supporting her. The press found out and hammered him for it.
- Blaine was in a railroad scandal and took bribes.
- Mugwumps—reform minded Republicans that left because they didn’t like Blaine.
- Rum, Romanism, and Rebellion: Democratic party according to a Blaine supporter.
- Cleveland wins popular vote.
- Electoral votes are 219 to 182.
- Cleveland wins.
Frances Folsom Cleveland
- The woman that Grover Cleveland married while in office.
- She graduated from Wells College
- Had 5 children
- During the engagement people thought that Cleveland was sending the telegrams to her mother.
Billion Dollar Congress
- 1889-1891: Republicans.Went to increased pensions for war veterans
- Increased tariffs
- Cleveland vetoes so much that they had to spend some money somewhere.
Panic of 1893:
- Philadelphia and Reading Railroads went bankrupt
- 1 of 4 lost jobs
- Many banks closed.
- 1 out of 7 was foreign born. NYC 4 out of 5.
- Immigrants were poor, did not speak English, and discriminated.
- They lived in big cities and in ethnic neighborhoods, worked in factories, joined the ‘melting pot’
- Wanted to be Americans.
- Very low payed.
Industrialization (second industrial revolution) 1870s
Centered in the U.S.Focused on the production of steel, chemicals, petroleumHeavily tied to immigrationMany technological advances during gilded age. 35,000 patents in the 1890s alone.Also people were trying to harness electricity.1870s the electric dynamo was invented. It takes mechanical energy and turns it into electrical energy.
More and more people living in cities.
Battle of the Currents
- Phonograph and Light bulb.Direct Current, opened first power plant in 1882Had a campaign to show how alternating current was dangerousElectrocuted animals and filmed electrocuting an elephant named Topsy
- Created motor that takes electrical energy to mechanical energy.Alternating current (better than direct, but more dangerous)Worked with WestinghouseWon the battle
Super wealthy capitalistsPresided over growing economy and improved life.
Andrew Carnegie- Scottish
Rags to RichesWorked his way up and became president of Pennsylvania Railroad.Invented something to take iron to steel.Monopoly of the steel market in the U.S.1901 –sells Empire to J.P. Morgan for $447 million.Believed it was a disgrace to die rich. So he donated his fortune.Libraries and church organs. Carnegie foundation
John D. Rockefeller (1839-1937)
Rags to RichesOwned an oil business. Most famous oil man1870—He had enough money to open an oil company, Standard Oil Company.Controlled 90% of the nation’s oil.Vertical integration: did advertising on their own or bought its own company for everything as well. No outside companies.Rebates from railroads. Railroads were willing to give him special deals in order to get his business.Deeply religious – BaptistDonates $500 million to charities. Education and Medicine (artistic)
J. P. Morgan
Born in to wealthMost famous banker: specialized in investment bankingBought railroads – owned 1/6 of the nation’s railways.Needed a lot of steel – bought out Carnegie in 1901 – U.S. Steel: first company to have assets greater than $1 billion.His personal wealth was small - $68 millionHis art collection became a part of the Metropolitan Museum of Art.Donated privately