RADIOBIOLOGY FINALS

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Dano
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34329
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RADIOBIOLOGY FINALS
Updated:
2010-09-12 20:11:15
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FINAL STUDY ME
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STUDY FOR FINALS RADIOBIOLOGY
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  1. WHAT DOES #116 RULE STATE
    LIMITS EXPOSURE TO IONIZING RADIATION - SETS DOSE LIMITS PER YEAR 5 rem/YEAR
  2. DEFINE ALARA
    AS LOW AS REASONABLY ACHIEVABLE
  3. WHAT IS THE DOSE RESPONSE CURVE
    ASSUMES THERE IS A LINEAR, NONTHRESHOLD RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DOSE AND BIOLOGICAL RESPONSE
  4. DEFINE LINEAR NONTHRESHOLD
    CHANCE OF DAMAGE IS PROPORTIONAL TO THE AMOUNT OF RADIATION ABSORBED

    DIRECTLY PROPORTIONAL
  5. WHAT ARE THE 3 PARTS OF THE CARDINAL RULE OF RADIOGRAPHY
    TIME, DISTANCE, SHIELDING
  6. WHAT IS THE LEAD EQUIVALENCE FOR

    PRIMARY BEAM SHIELDS

    SECONDARY BEAM SHIELDS
    PRIMARY .5 mm LEAD

    SECONDARY .25 mm LEAD
  7. NAME TWO TYPES OF FILM BADGES

    WHAT TYPE DO RTs USE
    FILM BADGE - TWO PIECES OF FILM INSIDE HOLDER

    THERMOLUMINECENCE DOSIMETER (RTs)
  8. WHAT IS THE TDL READ IN
    mR = MILLIRENKIN
  9. DEFINE BERT
    BACKGROUND EQUIVALENT RADIATION TIME
  10. DEFINE PERCEIVED RISK
    ASKS INDIVIDUAL OR GROUP TO EXPRESS PERCEPTION OF RISK - AWARENESS TOOL
  11. DEFINE RISK COMPARISON
    COMPARES TWO OR MORE ACTIVITIES
  12. WHAT IS BERT USED FOR
    COMPARES SPECIFIC RAD STUDY TO EQUIVALENT IN NATURAL BACKGROUND RADIATION EXPOSURE WHEN RISK IS SMALL AND BENEFIT IS GREAT (PT SHOULD HAVE EXAM)
  13. DEFINE GSD
    GENETIC SIGNIFICANT DOSE

    INCREASE IN DIAGNOSTIC EXPOSURES; AGING POPULATION, INCREASED LIFE SPAN, DEFENSIVE MEDICINE
  14. DEFINE LATENT PERIOD
    UNSEEN TIME PERIOD
  15. ETHICS ARE WHAT
    • RULES OF BEHAVIOR
    • GENERAL GUIDELINE
    • LAWS ARE BASED ON ETHICS
  16. LAWS ARE BASED ON WHAT
    ETHICS
  17. NEGLIGENCE REQUIRES WHAT
    • PROVE DUTY EXISITS
    • BREACH OF DUTY
    • CAUSE IS DUE TO PROFESSIONAL ACTIONS
    • INJURY MUST BE PROVED
  18. ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION
    • NO MASS / CHARGE ; PURE ENERGY
    • BEHAVES AS WAVES AND PARTICLES
  19. HOW DOES EMR REFLECT WAVES AND PARTICLES
    WHEN TRAVEL IN SPACE BEHAVE AS SINE WAVE

    WHEN INTERACTING WITH MATTER BEHAVE AS PARTICLE
  20. PARTICULATE
    ALPHA AND BETA ; HIGH SPEED e- (HAS 2 P AND 2 N)
  21. HIGHLY PENETRATING
    • HETEROGENOUS - MANY WAVELENGTHS
    • POLYENERGETIC - MANY ENERGIES
    • TRAVEL IN STAIGHT LINE
    • CAN NOT BE FOCUSED
    • ELECTRICALLY NEUTRAL
    • PRODUCE SECONDARY AND SCATTER RADIATION
  22. TWO TYPES OF REACTIONS MOST PREVALENT
    PHOTOELECTRIC ABSORPTION

    COMPTON SCATTER - MOST PREVALENT IN BODY
  23. LIST PROPERTIES OF XRAYS
    • FLUORESCE
    • CUASE BIOLOGIC CHANGE
    • IONIZE MATTER
    • AFFECT PHOTOGRAPHIC FILM
    • TRAVEL AT SPEED OF LIGHT (VACUUM)
    • RELEASE SMALL AMOUNT OF HEAT WHEN PASS THRU MATTER
  24. WHAT DOES THE TUBE CONSIST OF
    • GLASS ENVELOPE (VACUUM)
    • CATHODE (-) CHARGE - SOURDE OF e-
    • LARGE AND SMALL FILAMENT - DUAL FOCUS
    • FOCUSING CUP (-) CHARGED AND FOCUSES e- STREAM
    • ANODE (+) CHARGE - TARGET, STEM, ROTOR-STATOR
  25. WHAT ARE THE FUNCTIONS OF THE TUBE
    • FILAMENT IS HEATED (mA)
    • BOILS OFF e- (THERMIONIC EMISSION)
    • mA IS DIRECTLY PROPORTIONAL TO # OF e- FLOWING FROM CATHODE TO ANODE
    • AS mA INCREASES GET BIGGER CLOUD
    • 2200 DEGREES CELSIUS
    • TIME CONTROLS AMOUNT OF TIME e- ARE FLOWING
    • IF mA DOUBLES, S DOUBLES OR mAs DOUBLES, THE BEAM INTENSTIY DOUBLES
    • DIRECTLY PROPORTIONAL
  26. WHAT DOES mA MEASURE
    TUBE CURRENT
  27. WHAT % OF THE PRIMARY BEAM IS HEAT AND WHAT % IS ACTUAL XRAY
    • 99% HEAT
    • 1% X-RAY
  28. WHEN DO WE SEE BREMSSTRAHLUNG
    < 70 kVp
  29. WHEN DO WE SEE CHARACTERISTIC
    >70 kVp OCCURS WHEN e- STRIKE INNER SHELL
  30. WHERE IS PRIMARY RADIATION PRODUCED
    AT THE TARGET OF THE ANODE - FOCAL SPOT
  31. WHICH PART OF THE BEAM IS THE PRIMARY OR USEFUL PART
    RADIATION THAT EXITS AT THE PORT
  32. WHAT IS CONSIDERED LEAKAGE RADIATION
    ANY RADIATION THAT EXITS PROTECTIVE HOUSEING OTHER THAN AT PORT
  33. WHAT IS REMNANT RADIATION
    EXIT OR IMAGE FORMING RADIATION - PORTION OF PRIMARY BEAM THAT PASSES THRU PT WITHOUT INTERACTION
  34. WHAT IS SCATTER RADIATION
    RADIATION THAT HAS INTERACTED WITH MATTER AND CHANGES DIRECTION OF TRAVEL
  35. WHAT IS SECONDARY RADIATION
    RADIATION PRODUCED IN THE PTS BODY
  36. IF YOU INCREASE kVp WHAT HAPPENS TO COMPTON SCATTER
    IT INCREASES ALSO
  37. GENERATORS
    • 60 Hz AC CURRENT (PROVIDES 1+ AND 1- PULSE PER CYCLE)
    • CONVERTED TO PULSATING CURRENT THRU RECTIFICATION
  38. WHAT IS RECTIFICATION
    REROUTING OF (-) PULSES TO (+) PULESE

    PRODUCES PULSATING DC
  39. WHAT ARE THE THREE TYPES OF RECTIFICATION
    • SINGLE PHASE - REROUTS CURRENT SO 2 (+) PULSES/CYCLE PRODUCED;VERY INEFFICIENT;VOLTAGE DROPS TO "0" 120X/SEC; ROOT MEAN SQUARE - AVG ENERGY 70.7% OF kVp
    • 3 PHASE - COMBINES 3 VOLTAGE WAVEFORMS SO AS 1 STARTS TO DROP TO 0 THE NEXT BOOSTS THE VOLTAGE BACK UP- VOLTAGE NEVER DROPS TO "0". WHEN RECTIFICATION IS APPLIED IT PRODUCES 6 OR 12 PULSES/CYCLE;ROOT MEAN SQUARE 3 PHASE 6 PULSE=92% ; ROOT MEAN SQUARE 3 PHASE 12 PULSE= 97%
    • HIGH FREQUENCY POWER CONVERTERS CHANGE 60 Hz TO 6000Hz; PRODUCES MINIMAL VOLTAGE RIPPLE;ROOT MEAN SQUARE 97-98%
  40. FALLING LOAD MEANS
    STARTS EXPOSURE AT MAXIMUM mA; USES MAX mA UNTIL HEAT LOAD IS REACHED THEN DROPS IT TO NEXT LOWER LEVEL- PROCESS CONTINUES TILL APPROPRIATE mA IS MET

    • REDUCES EXPOSURE TIME
    • TAKES ADVANTAGE OF TUBE LOADING CAPABILITIES
  41. CAPACITOR DISCHARGE
    BATTERY POWERED
    CAPACITOR DISCHARGE - STORES e- CHARGE

    BATTERY POWERED - NICKEL CADNIUM - CONSISTENT mA AND kVp
  42. FLUOROSCOPIC
    • LOWER SETTINGS mA .5-5 mA LONGER PERIOD OF TIME
    • LIMITATIONS - VIEWING MONITOR
  43. IMAGE INTENSIFICATION
    • AMPLIFIES IMAGE BRIGHTNESS
    • TOTAL BRIGHTNESS GAIN = FLUX GAIN X MINIFICATION GAIN

    FLUX GAIN DETERMINED BY CONVERSION EFFICIENCY OF THE OUTPUT PHOSPHOR

    MINI GAIN e- EMITTED BY PHOTOCATHODE ARE COMPRESSED TO SIZE OF SMALLER OUTPUT PHOSPHOR
  44. REMENAT BEAM
    INPUT PHOSPHOR
    PHOTOCATHODE
    ELECTROSTATIC LENSE
    ACCELERATING ANODE
    • REMNANT BEAM STRIKES INPUT PHOSPHOR (CESIUM IODIDE)
    • INPUT PHOSPHOR EMITS LIGHT IN RESPONSE TO XRAY PHOTONS
    • PHOTOCATHODE ABSORBS LIGHT AND EMITS e- (PHOTOEMISSION)
    • ELECTROSTATIC LENSES FOCUS, ACCELERATE AND INVERT THE e-
    • ACCELERATING ANODE ALSO ATTRACTS THE e-
    • e- STRIKES OUTPUT PHOSPHOR (ZINC CADMIUN SULFIDE)
    • OUTPUT PHOSPHOR EMITS VISIBLE LIGHT
  45. WHAT 3 THINGS HAPPEN TO PRIMARY BEAM
    • SCATTER
    • ABSORPTION
    • TRANSMISSION (PASS THRU W/O INTERACTING)
  46. PRIMARY BEAN ATTENUATION = ?
    REMNANT RADIATION
  47. GAMMA RADIATION
    • ORIGNINATES WITHIN THE NUCLEUS
    • MONOENERGETIC
    • ATTENUATION IS EXPONENTIAL (BEAM IS REDUCED BY A CERTAIN % FOR EA INCREMENT OR THICKNESS)
    • HVL IS CONSISTENT
  48. X-RADIATION
    • POLYENERGETIC - MANY ENERGIES
    • BEAM IS ATTENUATED AT DIFFERENT RATES PER GIVEN THICKNES
    • HVL INCREASES AS FILTRATION OR TISSUE THICKNESS INCREASES
  49. GENERAL CONCEPTS
    • BINDING ENERGIES ARE HIGHER FOR GREATER ATOMIC # ELEMENTS
    • INNER ORBITAL SHELLS (HIGHER BINDING ENERGIES/LOWER TOTAL ENERGIES)
    • OUTER ORBITAL SHELLS (LOWER BINDING ENERGIES/HIGHER TOTAL ENERGIES)
  50. WHAT ARE FOUR (4) FACTORS THAT AFFECT ATTENUATION
    • 1. INCREASED PHOTON ENERGY (INCREASE TRANSMISSION, DECREASE ATTENUATION)
    • 2. ATOMIC DENSITY
    • 3. ATOMIC # OR Z#
    • 4. ELECTRONS PER GRAM

    AN INCREASE IN ANY OF THESE FACTORS RESULTS IN A DECREASE IN TRANSMISSION AND INCREASE IN ATTENUATION
  51. PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT
    • AKA - ABSORPTION
    • INCIDENT PHOTON INTERACTS W/ AND EJECTS A TIGHTLY BOUND INNER SHELL e- AND IS COMPLETELY ABSORBED (CASCADE EFFECT)
    • SECONDARY RADIATION MORE LIKELY TO OCCUR WHEN X-RAY PHOTON ENERGY AND INNER SHELL BINDING ENERGY ARE CLOSE TOGETHER
  52. PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT IS MEASURED HOW
    • IN KeV
    • HIGH ATOMIC # ELEMENTS AND INNERMOST SHELLS
  53. IN DIAGNOSTICS WHICH AFFECT IS PREDOMINANT
    COMPTON SCATTER
  54. PAIR PRODUCTION
    OPPOSITES
  55. COMPTON SCATTERING
    • INCIDENT PHOTON INTERACTS W/ AND EJECTS A LOOSLEY BOUND OUTER SHELL e-
    • SCATTERED PHOTON CONTINUES IN DIFFERENT DIRETCTION W/ SHORTER WAVELENGHT AND LESS ENERGY THAN INCIDENT PHOTON.
    • BACKSCATTER, SCATTERED BACK TO SOURCE
    • **PRIMARY SOURCE OF OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE
  56. COMPTON SCATTERING
    • RECOIL e- OR COMPTON e-
    • COMPTON SCATTER PHOTON
    • LOWER ENERGY
    • LOWER WAVELENGTH
    • LOWER FREQUENCEY
  57. WHAT IS THE PRIMARY SOURCE OF OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE
    COMPTON SCATTER
  58. COHERENT SCATTERING
    • AKA - CLASSICAL, RAYLEIGH OR THOMPSON
    • INCIDENT PHOTON INTERACTS W/ ATOM AS A WHOLE
    • EXCITATION OF ATOMS, EXCESS ENERGY IS GIVEN OFF AS A COHERENT SCATTERED PHOTON
    • (HAS SAME ENERGY, FREQUENCY AND WAVELENGTH AS INCIDENT PHOTON)
  59. PAIR PRODUCTION
    • INCIDENT PHOTON INTERACTS W/ THE NUCLEAR FIELD AND LOSES ALL ITS ENERGY
    • ENERGY IS CONVERTED TO A POSITRON AND NEGATRON.
    • POSITRONS QUICKLY INTERACTS W/ AN e- AND CONVERTS BACK TO ENERGY
    • (IN THE FORM OF TWO GAMMA PHOTONS MOVING IN OPPOSITE DIRECTIONS)
    • AKA - ANNIHILATION REACTION
  60. PHOTODISINTIGRATION
    • ABSORBED
    • INCIDENT PHOTON INTERACTS W/ THE NUCLEUS
    • NUCLEUS RESPONDS BY EMITTING A NUCLEAR FRAGMENT
  61. INTERACTIONS OF PARTICULATE RADIATION W/ MATTER
    • ALPHA & BETA RADIATION LOSE ENERGY BY PRODUCING IONS
    • PARTICLES PASS NEAR A NEUTRAL ATOM & THRU ELECTROSTATIC FORCE, REMOVES e- THRU ATTRATION/REPULSION
    • ELECTROSTATIC INTERACTIONS NO CHANGE IN TOTAL KINETIC ENERGY OF INTERACTION PARTICLES-KINETIC ENERGY OF A BETA PARTICLE IS TRANSFERED TO ORBITAL e-
    • NON-ELECTROSTATIC INTERACTION TOTAL KINETIC ENRGY OF PARTICL IS CHANGED BECAUSE SOME OF THE ENERGY IS TRANSFORMED INTO ANOTHER TYPE OF ENERGY (BREMS)
  62. LINEAR ENERGY TRANSFER AND SPECIFIC IONIZATION
    • LET - RATE ENERGY IS DEPOSITED IN MATTER
    • ION PAIRS PRODUCED PER UNIT OF TRAVEL
    • SI - RATE ENERGY IS LOST BY RADIATION
    • BOTH ARE DIRECTLY RELATED
    • X-RAY AND GAMMA RAYS - HAVE LOW LET AND SI
    • ALPHA AND BETA HAVE HIGH LET AND SI (MORE DAMAGING)
  63. WHAT IS SKIN DOSE
    ACTUAL MEASURE OF RADIATION RECEIVED BY A GIVEN AREA OF SKIN
  64. WHAT IS ESE
    ENTRANCE SKIN EXPOSURE - ESTIMATED VALUE USED BY GOVERNMENTAL AGENCIES TO REGULATE DIAGNOSTIC X-RAY EXPOSURES
  65. DEPTH DOSE
    % OF SKIN DOSE FOUND AT A CERTAIN DEPTH IN THE PATIENT
  66. ORGAN DOSE
    DOSE RECIEVED BY A PARTICULAR ORGAN
  67. INTEGRAL DOSE
    AMOUNT OF ENERGY ABSORBED BY A SPECIFIC TISSUE
  68. WHAT ARE OTHER NAMES FOR INTEGRAL DOSE
    • MEAN MARROW DOSE
    • GONADOL DOSE
    • GLANDUALR DOSE
    • CUMMULATIVE DOSE
  69. WHAT ARE POLYENERGETIC FOR A GIVEN ATOME
    X-RADIATION AND BETA
  70. THE HVL OF GAMMA RADIATION FROM A GIVEN ATOM IS THE SAME NO MATTER HOW MANY THICKNESS OF MATERIAL THE RADIATION HAS TO PASS THRU.

    TRUE OR FALSE
    TRUE
  71. IF THE INITIAL ENERGY OF THE BEAM IS 51 KeV, THEN ___ ION PAIRS ARE PRODUCED WITH A PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT
    1500
  72. THE RATE AT WHICH ENERGY IS DEPOSITED IN MATTER DESCRIBES WHAT
    LINEAR ENERGY TRANSFER OR LET
  73. AS Z# INCREASES, THE PROBABILITY OF COMPTON SCATTER (INCREASES/DECREASES)?
    DECREASES

    REMEMBER INVERSE RELATIONSHIP

    AS ONE GOES UP THE OTHER GOES DOWN
  74. KERMA
    KENETIC ENERGY RELEASED IN MATTER
  75. WHAT MEASURES PATIENT DOSE MOST OFTEN
    SKIN DOSE
  76. WHEN ELECTRONS STIVE TO FILL SHELLS AND GIVE OFF X-RAYS IN THE PROCESS IT IS KNOWN AS
    CHARACTERISTIC CASCADE
  77. WHAT CAUSES EXCITATION RATHER THAN INONIZATION?
    COHERENT SCATTER
  78. WHAT IS MOST LIKELY AN OUTER ORBIT INTERACTION?
    COMPTON SCATTER
  79. WHAT IS THE BASIS FOR USING LEAD APRONS
    PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT
  80. WHY USE HIGH kVp W/ CONTRAST STUDIES
    HIGH kVp PRODUCES BEAMS W/ ENERGIES CLOSE TO THE BINDING ENERGY OF THE INNERMOST SHELL OF BARIUM. THIS PROMOTES THE PRODUCTION OF PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT AND MAXIMIZES CONTRAST
  81. HOW DOES AN INCREASE IN ENERGY AFFECT COMPTON SCATTERING
    INCREASES IN ENERGY INCREASES THE RELATIVE PROBABILTIY OF COMPTON SCATTER OVER PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT. NUMERICALLY, SCATTER INTERACTIONS DECREASE AS PHOTON ENERGY INCREASE, BUT THERE IS AN APPEARANCE OF GREATER SCATTER ON AN XRAY FILM AS MORE SCATTER REACHES THE FILM
  82. PHOTODISINTIGRATION
    NUCLEAR FRAMENT IS FORMED
  83. CLASSICAL, THOMPSON, COHERENT
    • UNDER 10 KeV
    • INTERACTS W/ TOTAL ATOM
    • ATOM ABOSRBS PHOTON, BECOMES EXCITED, GIVES OFF PHOTON W/ SAME WL AND ENERGY

    SCATTER NOT IMPORTANT
  84. COMPTON
    • THRU DIAGNOSTIC RANGE
    • INTERACTS W/ OUTER SHELL e-, e- IS EJECTED, CONTINUES W/ LESS ENERGY IN NEW DIRECTION, SIGNIFICANT AS MAJOR SOURCE OF FOG ON FILM, PT DOSE AND TECH DOSE INCREASE

    SCATTER DIAGNOSTIC RADIOLOGY
  85. PHOTOELECTRIC
    • THRU DIAGNOSTIC RANGE; MUST BE = TO OR > THAN BINDING ENERGY
    • INTERACTS W/ INNER SHELL e-, EJECTS e- RESULTS IN CASCADE EFFECT. SIGNIFICANT BCS BONE HAS MORE INTERACTIONS THAN SOFT TISSUE, RESULTING IN DIFFERENTIAL ABSORPTION

    SECONDARY DIAGNOSTIC RADIOLOGY
  86. PAIR PRODUCTION
    • 1.02 MeV; NOT SIGNIFICANT BELOW 10 KeV
    • INTERACTS W/ NUCLEAR FIELD CONVERTS ENERGY INTOONE e- AND ONE POSITRON.
    • POSITRON QUICKLY INTERACTS W/ AVAILABLE e- W/ MUTUAL INHALATION RESULTING. GIVING OFF 1.02 MeV OF ENERGY IN MULTIPLE PHOTONS
  87. PHOTODISINTEGRATION
    OVER 10 MeV

    PHOTON INTERACTS W/ NUCLEUS, NUCLEAR FIELD DISRUPTED BY PHOTON ENERGY AND NUCL IS DISASSEMBLED. NUCLEAR FRAGMENTS ARE CREATED AND MOVE AWAY

    SECONDARY - RADIATION THERAPY
  88. REMEMBER THIS
    AS ENERGY (kVp) INCREASES, PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT DECREASES GREATLY

    AS ENERGY (kVp) INCREASES, THE % OF COMPTON INTERACTION DECREASES SLIGHTLY

    THEREFORE, AS kVp GOES UP, FEWER SCATTER PHOTONS ARE CREATED. AS MORE SCATTER IS RECORED ON FILM, THEREFOR WE SEE MORE IMPACT FROM COMPTON INTERACTIONS AS kVp GOES UP
  89. CHARACTERISTIC CASCADE
    PHOTOELECTRIC ABSORPTION
  90. REDUCE # PHOTONS
    LOOSE ENERGY THRU MATTER = ATTENUATION
  91. PHOTONS THRU MATTER INEFFICIENT
    DUE TO REMNANT RADIATION
  92. END OF PAIR PRODUCTION
    ANNIHILATION - PAIR UP KILL EACH OTHER
  93. ION PRED + CHARGED ATOMS
    PASS THRU MATTER
  94. EXPOSURE LEVELS DOSIMETRY REPORT
    MILLIREM
  95. HIGH CONCENTRATION CAUSES WATER TO LEAVE
    HYPERTONIC
  96. PROTEINS FUNCTIONS
    DOES NOT STORE ENERGY
  97. ORGANELL
    PROTEIN SYNTHESIS - RIBOSOMES

    (BRYAN SEES HIS RIBS - HES BURNING PROTEIN)
  98. NUCLEAR ENVELOPE
    REFORMS AND COMPLETES - TELOPHASE
  99. DAUGHTER CHROMOSOMES ON OPPOSITE SIDES
    ANAPHASE
  100. DNA REPLICATION
    INTERPHASE
  101. NUC ENV DISAPPEARS AND CENT MOVE TO OPP ENDS
    PROPHASE
  102. NUC ENVELOPE REFORMS; AND DIVIDES
    TELEPHASE
  103. ORGANELL PROTEIN SYNTHESIS
    RIBOSOMES
  104. MEIOSIS
    4 DAUGHTER CELLS W/ 23 CHROMOSOMES
  105. MITOSIS
    2 DAUGHTER CELLS W/ 46 CHROMOSOMES
  106. BRAIN OF THE CELL
    NUCLEUS
  107. RECYCLE OLD ORGANELLS
    GARBAGE DISPOSAL
    LIBOSOMES

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