Chapter 10: Basics of Chemistry

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Chapter 10: Basics of Chemistry
2009-12-22 11:51:53
Chemistry Cosmetology

Basics of Chemistry
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  1. Chemistry
    The science that deals with the composition, structures, and properties of matter, and how matter changes under different conditions.
  2. Organic Chemistry
    The study of substances that contain carbon (burn).
  3. Inorganic Chemistry
    The study of substances that do not contain carbon and do not burn (metals, minerals, water & air).
  4. Matter
    Any substance that occupies spaces and has mass (weight).
  5. Element
    The simplest form of matter and cannot be broken down into a simpler substance without the loss of identity (90 elements).
  6. Atom
    Atoms are the structural units that make up the elements; the smallest particle of an element that retains teh properties of that element.
  7. Molecule
    A chemical combination of two or more atoms.
  8. Elemental Molecules
    A chemical combination of atoms of teh same element (Oxygen 02).
  9. Compounds
    Chemical combinations of two or more atoms of different elements (sodium chloride-NaCl -table salt).
  10. States of Matter
    • 1) Solid-definite shape and volume.
    • 2) Liquid-definite volume, no definite shape.
    • 3) Gas-no definite volume or shape.
  11. Physical Properties
    Those chracteristics that can be determined without a chemical reaction and do not involve a chemical change (color, size, weight, and hardness).
  12. Chemical Properties
    Those characteristics that can only be determined by a chemical reaction and a chemical change in the substance (iron to rust/wood to burn).
  13. Physical Change
    A change in the form, or physical properties, of a substance, without a chemical reaction or the creation of a new substance (ice melts, nail polish dries).
  14. Chemical Change
    A change in the chemical and physical properties of a substance by a chemical reaction that creates a new substance or substances (oxidation of hair color).
  15. Pure Substance
    A chemical combination of matter, in definite proportions (oxygen, ozone, water and salt).
  16. Physical Mixture
    A physical combination of matter in any proportion (saltwater).
  17. Solution
    A stable mixture of two or more mixable substances.
  18. Solute
    The substance that is dissolved in a solution.
  19. Solvent
    The substance that dissolves the solute to form a solution.
  20. Miscible Liquids
    Mutually soluble; they can be mixed into stable solutions (water & alcohol).
  21. Immiscible Liquids
    Not capable of being mixed into stable solutions (water & oil).
  22. Suspension
    An unstable mixture of undissovled particles in a liquid (oil & vinegar salad dressing).
  23. Emulsion
    An unstable mixture of two or more immiscible substances united with the aid of an emulsifier.
  24. Surfactants
    Substances that act as a bridge to allow oil and water to mix, or emulsify (contraction for "suface active agent").
  25. Hydrophilic
    Water-loving head of the surfactant molecule.
  26. Lipophilic
    Oil-loving tail of the surfactant molecule.
  27. Oil-in-water Emulsion (O/W)
    Oil droplets are emulsified in water; the droplets of oil are surrounded by surfactants with their lipophilic tails pointing in; oil is "hidden" (mayonnaise).
  28. Water-in-oil Emulsion (W/O)
    Water droplets are emulsified in oil; the droplets of water are surrounded by surfactants with their hydrophilic heads pointing in; water is "hidden" (cold creams & styling creams).
  29. Volatile Alcohols
    Alcohols that evaporate easily (isopropyl alcohol & ethyl alcohol).
  30. Alkanolamines
    Substances used to neutralize acids or raise the pH of many hair products; less odor than ammonia.
  31. Ammonia
    A colorless gas with a pungent odor, composed of hydrogen and nitrogen; used to raise the pH in hair products to allow the solution to penetrate the hair shaft (ammonium hydroxide & ammonium thioglycolate).
  32. Glycerin
    A sweet, colorless, oily substance; used as a solvent & moisturizer in skin & body creams.
  33. Silicones
    A special type of oil used in hair conditioners and as water-resistant lubricants for the skin; less greasy than other oils; "breathable" film).
  34. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)
    Contain carbon (organic) and evaporate very quickly (volatile) (SD alcohol in hairspray).
  35. Ion
    An atom or molecule that carries an electrical charge.
  36. Ionization
    Causes an atom or molecule to split in two, creating a pair of ions with opposite electrical charges.
  37. Anion
    An ion with a negative electrical charge.
  38. Cation
    An ion with a positive electrical charge.
  39. pH Scale
    Measures the acidity and alkalinity of a substance (potential hydrogen-quantity of hydrogen ions).
  40. Logarithm
    Multiples of ten.
  41. Acids
    Owe their chemical reactivity to the hydrogen ion (H+); pH below 7; turn litmus paper from blue to red; contract and harden the hair (thioglycolic acid in permanent waving).
  42. Alkalis
    Owe their chemical reactivity to the hydroxide ion (OH-); "alkali"="base"; ph above 7.0; turn litmus paper from red to blue; soften and swell the hair and skin (sodium hydroxide in chemical hair relaxers).
  43. Oxidation
    A chemical reaction that combines a substance with oxygen to produce an oxide.
  44. Exothermic
    Chemical reactions that produce heat; all oxidation reactions are exothermic.
  45. Combustion
    The rapid oxidation of substance, accompanied by the production of heat and light (lighting a match).
  46. Reduction
    When oxygen is subtracted from a substance and the substance is reduced.
  47. Oxidizing agent
    A substance that releases oxygen (hydrogen peroxide H202).
  48. Redox
    A contraction for reduction-oxidation; the oxidizing agent is reduced, and the reducing agent is oxidized always at the same time.