Chapter 5 Vocabulary

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Chapter 5 Vocabulary
2010-09-12 20:48:03

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  1. abosorption
    passage of materials through the walls of the small intestine into the bloodstream
  2. amino acids
    small building blocks of proteins released when proteins are digested
  3. amylase
    enzyme secreted by the pancreas in order to digest starch
  4. anus
    terminal end or opening of the digestive tract to the outside of the body
  5. appendix
    blind pouch hanging from the cecum in the RLW; means hanging onto
  6. bile
    digestive juice made in the liver and stored in the gallbladder; breaks up large fat globules
  7. bilirubin
    pigment released by liver in the bile
  8. bowel
  9. canine teeth
    pointed, dog-like teeth next to the incisors; AKA: cuspids or eyeteeth
  10. cecum
    First part of the large intestine
  11. colon
    large intestine, consisting of the cecum; the ascending, transverse, or descending segments of the colon and rectum
  12. common bile duct
    carries bile from the liver and gallbaldder to the duodenum; AKA: the choledochus
  13. defecation
    elimination of feces from the digestive tract through the anus
  14. deglutition
  15. dentin
    the primary material found in teeth; covered by the enamel in the crown and protective layer of cementum in the root
  16. diestion
    breakdown of complex foods into simpler forms
  17. duodenum
    first part of the small intestine; duo=2, den=10; the duodenum is 1 ft. long
  18. elimination
    act of removal of materials from the body; in the digestive system, the removal of indigestible matierials as feces
  19. emulsification
    physical process of breaking up large fat globules into smaller ones thereby increasing the surface area that enzymes can use to digest the fat
  20. enamel
    hard, outermost layer of a tooth
  21. enzyme
    a chemical process that speeds up a reaction between substances; digestive enzymes break down complex foods to simpler substances; given names that end in -"ase"
  22. esophagus
    tube connecting the throat to the stomach. "Eso-" means inward; "phag/o" means swallowing
  23. fatty acids
    substances that are produced when fats are digested
  24. feces
    solid wastes; stool
  25. gallbladder
    small sac under the liver; stores bile
  26. glycogen
    starch; glucose is stored in the form of glycogen in liver cells
  27. hydrochloric acid
    substance produced by the stomach; necessary for digestion of food
  28. ileum
    3rd part of the small intestine
  29. incisor
    one of four front teeth in the dental arch
  30. insulin
    hormone produced by the endocrine cells of the pancreas; transports sugar from the blood into cells and stimulates glycogen formation by the liver
  31. jejunum
    2nd part of the small intestine
  32. lipase
    pancreatic enzyme necessary to digest fats
  33. liver
    a large organ located in the RUQ of the abdomen; secrets bile; stores sugar, iron, vitamins; makes blood proteins and destroys worn-out red blood cells; normal adult liver weighs about 2.5-3 lbs
  34. lower esophageal sphincter (LES)
    ring of muscles between the esophagus and the stomach; AKA: cardiac sphincter
  35. mastication
  36. molar teeth
    the sixth, seventh, and eighth teeth from the middle on either side of the dental arch
  37. premolar teeth
    the fourth and fifth teeth before the molars
  38. palate
    roof of the mouth; hard palate lies anterior to the soft palate and is supported by the upper jawbone (maxilla); soft palate is the posterior fleshy part between the mouth and the throat
  39. pancreas
    organ under the stomach; makes insulin (for transport of sugar into cells) and enzymes (for digestion of foods)
  40. papillae (singular: papilla)
    small, nipple-like elevations on the tongue
  41. partoid gland
    salivary gland within the cheek; just anterior to the ear
  42. perstalsis
    rhythmic contractions of the tubular organs
  43. pharynx
    throat, common passageway for food from the mouth and for air from the nose
  44. portal vein
    large vein bringing blood to the liver from the intestines
  45. protease
    enzyme that digests protein
  46. pulp
    soft itissue within a tooth, containing nerves and blood vessels
  47. pyloric sphincter
    ring of muscle at the end of the stomach, near the duodenum; normally closed, but open when a waves of peristalsis passes over it
  48. pylorus
    distal region of the stomach, opening to the duodenum
  49. rectum
    last section of the large intestine, connecting the end of the colon and anus
  50. rugae
    ridges on the hard palate and wall of the stomach
  51. saliva
    digestive juice produced by salivary glands
  52. sigmoid colon
    fourth and last, s-shaped segment of the colon, just before the rectum; empties into the rectum
  53. sphincter
    circular ring of muscle that constricts a passage or closes a natural opening
  54. stomach
    muscular organ that receives food from the esophagus th eparts include: the fundus (proximal section), body (middle section), and antrum (distal section)
  55. triglycerides
    fat molecules composed of three part fatty acids & one part glycerol
  56. uvula
    soft tissue hanging from the middle of the soft palate
  57. villi (singular: villus)
    microscopic projections in the wall of the small intestine that absorb nutrients into the bloodstream