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Define classical perspective
Emphasized a rational, scientific approach to the study of management. Sought to make organizations efficient.
List characteristics of Scientific mangagement.
- Developed standard methods for performing work
- Selected workers with appropriate abilities for the job.
- Trained workers in standard method.
- Supported workers by planning and eliminating interruptions
- Provided wage incentives for increased output.
List elements of bureaucracy
- Labor is divided with clear definitions of authority and responsibilty
- Positions are in hierarchy of authority
- Personnel are selected and promoted based on qualifications
- Acts and decisions are recorded in writing
- Management is separate from ownership
- Rules and procedures ensure reliable and predictable behavior. Rules are impersonal and uniformly applied.
List 2 Administrative principles
- Focused on the organization rather than the individual
- Delineated the managemnet functions of planning, organizing, coordinating, and controlling.
Fayol's 14 points
- division of work
- unity of command
- unity of direction
- subordination of individual interest for the common good
- scalar chain
- stability of tenure of staff
- esprit de corps
Characteristics of the Humanistic perspective
Emphasized understanding human behavior. Truly effective control comes from within the individual worker rather than authoritarian control.
Characteristics of the Management Science perspective
Distinguished for applications of mathematics and statistics to problem solving
4 principles of Systems Theory
- Open vs. Closed systems
4 characteristics of TQM
- Employee involvement
- Focus on the customer
- Continuous improvement