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Define classical perspective
Emphasized a rational, scientific approach to the study of management. Sought to make organizations efficient.
List characteristics of Scientific mangagement.
Developed standard methods for performing work
Selected workers with appropriate abilities for the job.
Trained workers in standard method.
Supported workers by planning and eliminating interruptions
Provided wage incentives for increased output.
List elements of bureaucracy
Labor is divided with clear definitions of authority and responsibilty
Positions are in hierarchy of authority
Personnel are selected and promoted based on qualifications
Acts and decisions are recorded in writing
Management is separate from ownership
Rules and procedures ensure reliable and predictable behavior. Rules are impersonal and uniformly applied.
List 2 Administrative principles
Focused on the organization rather than the individual
Delineated the managemnet functions of planning, organizing, coordinating, and controlling.
Fayol's 14 points
division of work
unity of command
unity of direction
subordination of individual interest for the common good
stability of tenure of staff
esprit de corps
Characteristics of the Humanistic perspective
Emphasized understanding human behavior. Truly effective control comes from within the individual worker rather than authoritarian control.
Characteristics of the Management Science perspective
Distinguished for applications of mathematics and statistics to problem solving
4 principles of Systems Theory
Open vs. Closed systems
4 characteristics of TQM
Focus on the customer
MGT & PROD- Management history