Anatomy-Unit 1

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ashelton
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Anatomy-Unit 1
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2010-09-12 23:04:16
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Anatomy
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Anatomy Unit One
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  1. Anatomy
    • study of the morphology of those structures that make up an
    • organism.
  2. Microscopic
    (histology)-
    • study
    • of cells, tissues, etc. w/electron, light or scanning micro.
  3. Developmental(embryology)
    • cellular
    • and structural changes during growth
  4. Gross
    • macroscopic
    • with aid of dissection
  5. Neuroanatomy
    • nervous
    • system
  6. Functionaly
    • micro and macro as it relates to functions and
    • processes
  7. Pathology
    • micro and macro study and identification of
    • diseases
  8. Surgical
    • use
    • of gross anatomy to surgerical
  9. Surface
    • of
    • visible and palpable of the outside surface
  10. Ipsilateral
    on the same side
  11. Contralateral
    on the opposite side.
  12. Parietal
    • pertaining
    • to wall of the cavity
    • ex. The
    • parietal pleura lines the inner wall of the rib cage
  13. Visceral
    • Pertaining
    • to internal organs
    • ex.The
    • visceral pleura cover the surface of the lungs
  14. Somati
    • pertaining
    • to body or trunk
    • ex.nerves
    • to the skeletal
    • muscle s of the trunk are general somatic efferent
    • nerves.
  15. Assignment 1 - Anatomical Position
    In the anatomical position, describe the position of the following structures
    on your body:
    - Elbow
    - Index finger
    - Ankle
    - Sternum
    - Scapula
    • What
    • is the position of the following structures the anatomical position:
    • - Elbow: ventral, distal to the shoulder, proximal to the wrist
    • - Index finger: distal to the metacarpals
    • - Ankle: superior to the foot, inferior to the knee
    • -
    • Sternum: ventral, medial to the ribs, inferior the clavicle
    • - Scapula: dorsal, lateral to the
    • thoracic spine.
  16. Longitudinal
    • cut
    • body lengthwise
  17. Tranverse or Cross Sections
    horizontally
  18. *****Movements occur in references to each of these cardinal
    planes and about an axis of motion which intersects the reference plane.
    Flexion and extension most commonly occur in the sagittal plane about a
    transverse (X) axis. Abduction and adduction movements take place generally in
    the frontal plane about an antero-posterior (Z) axis. Medial (internal) and
    lateral (external) rotation occurs in the transverse plane about a longitudinal
    or vertical (Y) axis.*******
  19. *****Many functional movements occur diagonal to the
    cardinal planes rather than parallel to them. Because these diagonal movements
    take place between at least two of the cardinal planes, the axis of this
    diagonal motion must also lie between the axes of motion of each plane. For
    example, if the arm is lifted diagonally at a 45 degree angle from the side of
    the body, it moves between the sagittal and frontal planes. The axis of the
    movement at the glenohumeral joint lies between the transverse axis of the
    sagittal plane and the antero-posterior axis of the frontal plane. Because of
    this diagonal axis of motion, movement at the glenohumeral joint would consist
    of a combination of flexion in the sagittal plane and abduction in the frontal
    plane.*****
  20. Triplanar
    • flex/ext
    • in sagittal, ab/add in frontal, rotation in transverse
  21. Degree of joint freedom
    • amount
    • of movement in each cardinal plane
  22. Triaxial
    • hip joints,
    • glenohumeral
  23. Biaxial
    • metacarpophalangel
    • and radiocarpal
  24. Uniaxial
    • humeroulnar,
    • interphalangeal joints
  25. ROM(range of motion)
    • amount
    • of joint movement
  26. Osteokinematics
    • study
    • of gross motions of limbs, trunk, etc.
  27. Arthrokinematics
    study of movement bet two adjacent articular surfaces.
  28. Rotatory
    rotational and angular
  29. Translatory
    linear movement
  30. Gliding or sliding
    flat surface against flat surface
  31. Curvilinear
    synovial joints
  32. Active range of motion-arom
    • active
    • muscle contraction
  33. Passive range of motion-prom
    • external
    • forces
  34. END-FEEL
    • resistance
    • felt at end range of PROM
  35. THUMB
    FLEXION
    • movement
    • of the thumb towards the index finger at the carpometacarpal joint, also called
    • RADIAL ADDUCTION of the thumb
  36. THUMB
    EXTENSION
    • lateral
    • movement of the thumb away from the index finger at the carpometacarpal joint,
    • also called RADIAL ABDUCTION of the thumb
  37. ABDUCTION
    • moving
    • away from the midline of the body in the frontal plane about an anteroposterior
    • axis, opposite of adduction
  38. THUMB
    ABDUCTION
    • anterior
    • movement of the thumb away from the palm at the carpometacarpal joint, also
    • called PALMER ABDUCTION of the thumb
  39. ADDUCTION
    • moving
    • toward the midline of the body in the frontal plane about an anteroposterior
    • axis, opposite of abduction
  40. THUMB
    ADDUCTION
    • posterior
    • movement of the thumb toward the palm at the carpometacarpal joint, also called
    • PALMAR ADDUCTION of the thumb
  41. OPPOSITION
    • movement of the thumb which brings the anterosuperior pad of the thumb in
    • contact with the pad of any one of the fingers, a pinch-like movemen
  42. PRONATION
    • a)
    • medial turning (rotation) of forearm so that the palm of the hand faces
    • posteriorly (downward if the elbow is flexed); b) a combined triplanar movement
    • at the ankle and at the foot consisting of dorsiflexion, eversion and
    • abduction; c) opposite of supination
  43. SUPINATION
    • a)
    • lateral turning (rotation) of the forearm so that the palm of the hand faces
    • anteriorly (upward if the elbow is flexed); b) a combined triplanar movement at
    • the ankle and at the foot consisting of plantarflexion, inversion and
    • adduction; c) opposite of pronation
  44. ULNAR
    DEVIATION
    • medial
    • movement of the hand in the frontal plane at the wrist joint, movement of the
    • hand to the side of the ulna and little finger
  45. RADIAL
    DEVIATION
    • lateral movement of the hand in the frontal plane at the wrist joint, movement
    • of the hand to the side of the radius and thumb
  46. MEDIAL
    ROTATION
    • rotation
    • toward the midline in a transverse plane about a longitudinal (vertical) axis
  47. LATERAL
    ROTATION
    • rotation
    • away from the midline in a transverse plane aboutlongitudinal (vertical) axis
  48. CIRCUMDUCTION
    • a
    • circular movement produced by combining flexion, adduction, extension, and
    • abduction
  49. RETRACTION
    • a)
    • moving backward; b) horizontal movement of the scapula toward the midline of
    • the body, same as scapular adduction; c) posterior movement of the mandible and
    • clavicle; d) opposite of protraction
  50. PROTRACTION
    • a)
    • moving forward; b) horizontal movement of the scapula away from the midline of
    • the body, same as scapular abduction; c) anterior movement of the mandible and
    • clavicle; d) opposite of retraction
  51. ELEVATION
    • upward
    • movement, movement of a body part superiorly, opposite of depression
  52. DEPRESSION
    • downward
    • movement, movement of a body part inferiorly, opposite of elevation
  53. INVERSION
    • inward
    • turning of the foot so that the plantar surface (bottom) of the foot faces
    • medially and the great (big) toe moves cranially, opposite of eversion
  54. EVERSION
    • outward
    • turning of the foot so that the plantar surface (bottom)of the foot faces
    • laterally and the great (big) toe moves caudally, opposite of inversion
  55. Types of Joints

    Synarthoses
    a. mating bones interconnect by fibrous or cartilage

    b. no joint cavity

    c. movement is absent or limited

    • Two
    • kinds:

    Cartilaginous

    Fibrous
  56. Types of Joints

    Diarthroses
    • freely moveable
    • ex. Synovial
  57. Fibrous joints-
    a. Sutures-skull

    • b.
    • Syndesmoses-joining
    • my ligamentous tissue

    Ex. Distal tibiofibular joint


    Interosseous membrame bet radius and ulna
  58. Cartilaginous
    joints
    • a.
    • Symphyses-unites
    • bone by disc of fibrocartilage

    Ex. Pubic symphysis

    • Intervertebral joint(also
    • refered to an amphiarthrosis)

    • b. Synchondroses-bones united by hyaline
    • cartilage

    • Ex. Union of costal cartilage of the rib
    • and sternum
  59. Synovial
    • have
    • (1) a joint space which may or may not be divided by a fibrous interarticular
    • disc or meniscus, (2) a synovial membrane lining the joint cavity which
    • produces synovial
    • fluid for joint lubrication and nutrition, (3) a fibrous joint capsule which
    • may be reinforced by joint ligaments, and (4) a thin layer of cartilage,
    • usually hyaline, without perichondrium covering the articular surfaces of the
    • mating bones
  60. Types
    of joints:
    • A)
    • Plane, eg. intercarpal joints of the wrist; B) hinge ,
    • eg.humeroulnar joint at the elbow; C) pivot ,
    • eg. median atlantoaxial joint; D) condyloid ,
    • eg.radiocarpal joint of the wrist; E) saddle ,
    • eg. carpometacarpal joint of the thumb; and F) ball and
    • socket , eg. glenohumeral joint
  61. Close packed position
    • joints
    • congruent
    • ***Capsule and ligaments taut
  62. Loss packed position
    • joint
    • unlocked inefficient for load bearing
    • ***Capsule
    • and ligament lax
  63. Types of synovial

    PLANE
    or ARTHRODIAL JOINTS
    • These
    • joints have relatively flat articular surfaces that permit gliding movements in
    • any plane. Some intercarpal joints, some intertarsal joints, and the
    • acromioclavicular joint are examples of plane joints
  64. Types of synovial

    HINGE
    OR GINGLYMUS JOINTS
    • These
    • joints have one concave articular surface and an opposing convex articular
    • surface. They allow mainly uniaxial movement in the sagittal plane. The
    • interphalangeal joints of the fingers and toes, and the humeroulnar joint of
    • the elbow are hinge joints
  65. Types of synovial
    PIVOT
    OR TROCHOID JOINTS
    • These
    • joints have one concave articular surface, one convex surface. They allow
    • mainly uniaxial joint movement in the transverse plane. The proximal radioulnar
    • and the median atlantoaxial joints are classified as pivot joints
  66. Types of synovial
    CONDYLOID
    OR ELLIPSOID JOINTS
    • These
    • joints have an oval concave articular surface and an opposing oval convex
    • articular surface. They allow biaxial movement in sagittal and frontal planes.
    • Rotation is restricted by the curvature of the opposing joint surfaces. The
    • radiocarpal joint of the wrist, the metacarpophalangeal joints of the fingers,
    • and the metatarsophalangeal joints of the foot are condyloid joints
  67. Types of synovial
    SADDLE
    OR SELLAR JOINTS
    • In
    • this joint, each articular surface has a concave and convex surface. The plane
    • of the concave surface is at a right angle to the plane of the convex surface.
    • The position of the concave and convex surfaces on one articular surface is
    • reversed on the opposing articular surface. This joint may permit biaxial or
    • triaxial movement. The carpometacarpal joint of the thumb is a saddle joint. It
    • permits biaxial movement in the sagittal and frontal planes, but rotation is restricted
    • by the interlocking configuration of the opposing articular surfaces. The
    • sternoclavicular joint is also a saddle joint. It allows triaxial movement
  68. Types of synovial
    BALL
    AND SOCKET OR ENARTHRODIAL JOINTS
    • These
    • joints have one concave articular surface and one convex articular surface. The
    • curvature of each articular surface is similar in all planes. These joints
    • permit movements in all three cardinal planes (triaxial). The hip and
    • glenohumeral joints are examples of ball and socket joints
  69. Concave/convex
    rule
    • a. Convex moves on a concave-convex
    • articular surface is opposite of observed ostero movement

    • Concave
    • on convex- concave articular surface is same of observed
    • ostero movement
  70. Load-external force
    Tensile
    • pulls
    • away from a structure or pulls along the same plane but in opposite directions.
    • It produces a tensile stress within the material which is resisted by
    • compressive stress. If the tensile stress is greater than the resisting
    • compressive stress, the material elongates
  71. Load-external force
    Compression
    • acts
    • in the same plane but towards each other. It p roduces compressive stress
    • within the material which is resisted by tensile stress. If the compressive
    • stress is greater than the tensile stress, the material is squeezed or
    • compressed (compressive strain)
  72. Load-external force
    SHEAR
    LOAD
    • acts
    • in parallel planes and but in opposite directions. It produces stresses that
    • are also parallel but in opposite directions. These stresses cut or tear the
    • material (shearing strain) in a scissor-like action
  73. Stress
    • material
    • deforms due to force/transmitting and resistive forces cause
  74. Strain
    • change
    • in size or angle as compared to original config
  75. **** BENDING, Torsion, FRICTION and TORQUE are
    specific types forces that have an important role during movement. BENDING loads
    produce tensile stress and strain on the convex side of the bend and
    compressive stress and strain on the concave side. Torsion produces
    rotational shear stress and strain, resulting in the twisting of the
    material.****
  76. FRICTION
    • resists
    • movement between contacting surfaces. Its magnitude is related to 1) the amount
    • of force pressing the contacting surfaces together, 2) the amount of surface
    • area in contact between surfaces, and 3) the surface texture of the materials
    • in contact
  77. TORQUE
    or MOMENT
    • TORQUE
    • or MOMENT of a force measures the
    • capability of a force to produce rotation about an axis in any lever. Torque
    • occurs at a joint when muscle contraction produces a force (F) that results in
    • rotatory joint motion. Torque equals the magnitude of the applied force (F)
    • times the perpendicular distance between the vector representing the direction
    • of force and the axis of rotation

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