physio test 2

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Author:
HLW
ID:
34392
Filename:
physio test 2
Updated:
2010-09-12 23:44:38
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physio test
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neuro
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  1. neuromatrix of pain
    • nociception+perception = integrated response
    • (Environment effects perception and response)
  2. 3 dimentions of pain:
    • Sensory-discriminative (intesisty, duration)
    • Motivational-affective (unpleasentness and urge to escape)
    • Cognitive-evuative (distractions)
  3. Primary sensory cotex=
    Secondary Sensory Cortex=
    • Primary sensory cotex= Localization
    • Secondary Sensory Cortex= Motivational affect (sore)
  4. Pain is defined as...
    an emotional experience
  5. Descartes believed that
    increased pain perception=increased intellignce
  6. Nociceptors:
    • A delta
    • A beta
    • C
  7. C =>
    • burning pain =>
    • temps
    • chemical
  8. A Delta =>
    accurate localization
  9. A beta=>
    • Vibration
    • Position
  10. What activates nociceptors
    • Inflammation
    • tissue damage
  11. What type of neurotransmitter is GABA?
    inhibitory
  12. Cellular changes in response to nociceptive transmission (4)
    • Cellular remodeling
    • Receptor expression
    • Neuropeptide expression
    • Cell proliferation
  13. Gate Control theory resulted in:
    • First idea of motivation and perception
    • (Large Fibers are inhibitory ->
    • Blocks nocireceptors)
  14. Good Pain Vs. Bad Pain
    • Good: Protective
    • Bad:Hypersensivity, problematic and no physiological purpose
  15. Types of pain:
    • Acute/Chronic
    • Physiological/Pathophysiological
  16. Clinical manifestations of pathologicl pain
    • Hyperalgesia (exaggerated response)
    • Allodynia (response to a non-noxious stimulus)
  17. Hyperalgesia
    exaggerated response
  18. Allodynia response to a non-noxious stimulus
    response to a non-noxious stimulus
  19. hyperalgesia and allodynia causes a...
    amplified and persistant transmission of action potentials
  20. Peripheral sensitization is induced by:
    • inflammatory mediators
    • (transmit an amplified signal to the spinal relay center)
  21. Function of pre-emptive analgesia
    • prevents onset of central sensitization and
    • attenuates peripheral inflammation
  22. When stimulated, rods and cones.... (3 steps)
    • cis -> trans
    • lose opsin
    • bleaching
  23. What do the structural changes in photoreceptors cause?
    • transduction:
    • open/close Na channels ->
    • changes in membrane potential
  24. Hyper/depolarization of photoreceptors are transmitted as receptor potentials from __ to ___
    • retinal network
    • to
    • ganglion cells
  25. what makes photopigments sensitive to various wavelengths
    different amounts of opsin
  26. How is photopigment concetration regulated in dark and light conditions
    • Dark: Vit A -> cis-retinal and stored in photoreceptors
    • Light Cis-restinal -> Vit A
  27. hair cells synapse w/
    vestibulocochlear nerve
  28. what amplifies initiates depolarization of stereocilia
    • basilar membrane deviates/pushes spiral organ to/away from tecorial mmbrane ->
    • defomatio of sensory hair cells ->
    • K+ in
  29. Auditory depolarization is transmitted to CrN ___
    8 (trigeminal)
  30. Conduction deafness =
    • Conduction=
    • external ear canal
    • ear drum
    • middle ear
  31. Nerve Deafness=
    innerer/spiral organ
  32. tympanic reflex
    contraction of middle ear to protect inner ear (whales)
  33. Macula consist of
    • saccule
    • untricle
  34. Vestibular organ conects to
    • gamma/alpha motor neurons (posture)
    • cerebellum (coordination)
    • eye muscles (nystagmus)
  35. pathological vs physiological nystagmus
    • pathological: eye movements w/o head rotations
    • physiological: eyes stay fixed until cant any longer
  36. Vestibular Syndrome
    circling/rolling, usually accompanied w/ pathological nystagmus

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