Parenting Exam 1
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Parenting Exam 1
Chapter 2 Dr. Whittington, Parenting
What did Plato and Aristotle recommend regarding parenting?
Children have special needs and they must be met
recognized stages in life
What were parents in the 1500s and 1900s concerned about?
health and education
having independent thoughts
Parenting in the 17th and 18th centuries:
concern with abstract questions about parenting
worried about responsibility of being a parent, discipline methods, and whether or not they are competent enough to be a parent
extended branch of the cell that sends messages to other cells
protruding part of the cell that receives messages from other cells
small gap between cells in which they communicate
substance released by the axon that triggers a change in the dendrite membrane of the receiving cell so the message is received
special neurons that when watching something, act the same way that the neurons in the brain of the person carrying out the action fire.
How are mirror neurons effected by watching violent television programs?
mirror neurons in areas related to aggression fired and children were more likely to behave in aggressive ways following the show
How big is the brain at birth?
1/4th the size of adult
almost full grown
How does pruning occur
from back to front
visual cortex, then later in the prefrontal areas
How does Experience affect the brain?
cortex is malleable and other parts of the brain take over functions when the brain lacks ability
Experience stimulates growth of axons and dendride endings
What is cortisol?
hormone that regulates daily pattern of arousal
alertness and attention
helps body respond to stress
How does cortisol affect children in stressful environments?
fast acting component in sympathetic nervous system
nervous system prepares body for fight/flight
cortisol is high during stress
What is executive functioning?
ability to hold and use information in working memory
ability to inhibit habitual behaviors
ability to adjust to change and solve problems flexibly
related to dimension of effortful control; skills related to intelligence, but more measures of attention and self control
What are the different types of temperament?
What do learning theories help us understand?
Their important role in modeling appropriate behaviors for children and structuring the consequences that teach children new behaviors
children copy parents whether parents are carrying out approved or disapproved behaviors
children want parental attention and will seek it by negative means if they do not get it for positive behaviors
: children want your attention
conditions under which children learn best
Vygotsky- What did he help us learn?
zone of proximal development (finding potential)
believed knowledge, though and mental processes such as memory all rest on SOCIAL INTERACTONS
Piaget-What did he help us learn?
assimilation, accommodation, equilibrium
: take child's views into account, that children need opportunities to explore
Freud-What did he help us learn?
that children have internal needs that drive behavior
neither child/parent has total control
that parents have role in helping children understand needs and fine acceptable ways to fill them
Erikson-What did he help us learn?
that growth goes through adulthood, children are active and adaptive
stages of growth and development
Attachment Theory- what did this theory help us understand?
attachments are formed with important people throughout lifespan
the way parents treat babies creates long-lasting expectations about the way the world will treat them
attachments depend on quality of parent-child rel. at the time and will change as circumstances improve or damage quality of relationship
Systems Theory- what did this theory help us understand?
that the thing of interest consists of many parts that influence each other in important ways
no part is more important that the other
low birth weight will affect the child in all ways
Evolutionary Developmental Theory- what did this theory help us understand?
as human beings, we have inborn tendencies based on our histories that make certain adaptations more or less difficult; take heritage seriously as make social interventions
strong attachment and closeness to nurturing family members has had and continues to have survival value
Bioecological theory- what did this theory help us understand?
forces outside the family impact parents' care of children
importance of regularity and stability in children's lives
help to improve parenting comes not just from changing what goes on in home, but also what goes on in society
Styles of parenting
nurturance and attention to children's individuality and behavior demands
limit-setting helps children achieve responsibility and competence
many demands of children
little support to achieve demands
associated with unhappiness, inhibition and distrust
allows freedom of impulse expression
does not teach or support self control and self-regulation
associated with immaturity an dependence