Anatomy & Physiology Ch 3: Cells

Card Set Information

Author:
heartmewhole
ID:
34419
Filename:
Anatomy & Physiology Ch 3: Cells
Updated:
2010-09-13 03:33:22
Tags:
Anatomy Physiology cells
Folders:

Description:
Anatomy & Physiology Ch 3: Cells
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user heartmewhole on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. What is the cell theory?
    • - the cell is the basic structural and functional unit of life
    • - organismal activity depends on individual and collective activity of cells
    • - function is determined by structure
    • - continuity of life has a cellular basis
  2. Plasma Membrane
    • - separates intercellular fluids from extracelluar fluids
    • - plays a dynamic role in cellular activity (selectively permeable "picky")
  3. Fluid Mosaix Model
    • - bilayer of phospholipids with embedded, dispersed proteins
    • - phospolipids have hydrophobic and hydrophilic portions
    • - proteins are peripheral (attached) or integral (through membrane)
    • - the membrane also contains choloesterol, glycoproteins, and glycolipids
  4. What does glyco refer to?
    • - sugars attached to the cell
    • - the ID of the cell
  5. What are the functions of membrane proteins
    • - transport
    • - receptors for signal transduction
    • - attachement for cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix
    • - enzymatic activity
    • - intercellular joining
    • - cell to cell recognition
  6. What are the membrane junctions?
    tight junction, desmosome, and gap junction
  7. What is a tight junction?
    impermeable junction that encircles the cell
  8. What is a desmosome?
    anchoring junction scattered along the sides of the cell
  9. What is a gap junction?
    • allows chemical substances pass between cells
    • - present in electrically excitable tissue (nervous & mucles)
  10. Microvilli
    • small projections from cell surface which increases surface area
    • - cell extension
  11. Flagella
    • long projections used for movement
    • - cellular extension
  12. Cilia
    • moves substances in one direction across the cell surfaces
    • - cellular extension
  13. Plasma Membrane Transport
    • - requires no energy
    • - movement from high concentration areas to low concentration areas
    • - filtration
    • - simple diffusion
    • - facilitated diffusion
    • - osmosis
    • - osmolarity
  14. Simple Diffusion
    • molecules move directly through the lipid layer
    • - small nonpolar and lipid-soluble substances
  15. Facilitated Diffusion
    • - transports glucose, amino acids, and ions
    • - will always uses a protein in the process
    • - transported substances pass through carrier proteins or protein channels
  16. Osmosis
    • - diffusion of water across a semipermiable membrane
    • - occurs when there is a difference in water concentration across the membrane
  17. Osmolarity
    total concentration of solute particles in a solution
  18. Isotonic
    solutions with the same solute concentration
  19. Hypotonic
    solutions having lesser solute concentration
  20. Hypertonic
    solutions having greater solute concentration
  21. Active Transport
    • - requires enegery
    • - moves a substance against its will
  22. Primary Active Transport
    • - energy comes from the hydrolysis of ATP
    • - uses a protein pump to move molecules
  23. Secondary Active Transport
    • - energy comes from previously established ionic gradient
    • - no ATP used in actual transport step
    • - when molecule diffuses it drags another molecule with it
    • - symport/antiport
  24. Vesicular Transport
    • - for larger polymers
    • - membrane-bound vesicles are used to transport material across the membran
    • - requires a lot of ATP
    • - endocytosis
    • - exocytosis
  25. What is endocytosis?
    movement into the cell
  26. What is exocytosis?
    movement out of the cell
  27. What is cytoplasm?
    material between plasma membrane and the nucleus
  28. What is cytosol?
    largely water with disolved proteins, salts, sugars, and other solutes
  29. Cytoplasmic Organelles
    Metabolic machinery of the cell
  30. Mitochondria
    • - double membrane structures with folds called crisae
    • - provides most of the cells ATP (energy)
    • - contain their own DNA and ribosomes
  31. Ribosomes
    • - site of protein synthesis
    • - free ribosomes synthesize soluble proteins
    • - membrane-bound (attached) ribosomes synthesize proteins that will be exported
  32. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
    • - interconnect tubes and parallel membranes
    • - continuous with the nuclear membrane
    • - two varieties - rough ER and smooth ER
    • - external surface studded with ribosomes
    • - manufactures all secreted proteins
    • - responsible for the synthesis of membrane proteins and phospholipids for cell membranes
  33. Smooth ER
    • - tubules arranged in a looping network
    • - involved with lipid and cholesterol metabolism
    • - also responsible for detoxification of drugs and alcohol
  34. Golgi Apparatus
    • - stacked and flattened membranous sacs
    • - functions in modification and packaging of proteins
    • - secretory vesicles leave the Golgi apparatus and move to designated parts of the cell
  35. Lysosomes
    • - contains digestive enzymes
    • - digest ingested bacteria, viruses, and toxins
    • - degrade nonfunctional organelles
    • - breakdown non-useful tissue
  36. Endomembrane System
    system of organelles that function: to produce, store, and export biological molecules; degrade potentially harmful substances
  37. Endomembrane System includes?
    system includes nuclear envelope, smooth and rough ER, lysosomes, vacuoles, transport vesicles, Golgi apparatus and the plasma membrane
  38. Peroxisomes
    • - membranous sacs containing oxidases and catalases
    • - detoxify harmfil or toxic substances
    • - neutralize dangerous free radicals
  39. What are free radicals?
    highly reactive chemicals with unpaired electrons
  40. Cytoskeletons
    • - the skeleton of the cell
    • - dynamic, elaborate series of rods running though the cytosol
    • - consists of microfilaments, intermediate filaments and microtubules
  41. Microfilaments
    • - smallest fiber
    • - contains the protein actin
    • - braces and strengthens the cell surface (helps in movement of particles in and out of the cell)
  42. Intermediate Filaments
    • - tough fibers with proteins from the keratin family
    • - high tensile strength (rope-like)
    • - gives the cell a definite shape and keeps the nucleus in one location
  43. Microtubules
    • - largest fiber
    • - hollow tubes made of tubulin
    • - determines the overall shape of the cell and distribution or organelles
    • - also used to produce cilia and flagella
  44. Nucleus
    • - contains nuclear envelope, nucleoli, and chromatin (DNA)
    • - gene-containing control center of the cell (dictates the kinds and amounts of proteins to be synthesized)
  45. Nuclear Envelope
    • - selectively permeable double membrane barrier containing pores
    • - pore complex regulates transport of molecules into and out of the nucleus
  46. Nucleoli
    • - dark-staining spherical bodies within the nucleus
    • - site of ribosome production

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview