Anatomy & Physiology Ch 1

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heartmewhole
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34423
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Anatomy & Physiology Ch 1
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2010-09-13 04:25:22
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Anatomy Physiology
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Anatomy & Physiology Ch 1
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  1. What is anatomy?
    the study of the structure and shape of the body and its parts
  2. what is physiology?
    the study of the body and its parts work or function
  3. Structures determines...
    function
  4. Anatomy levels of study
    • Gross - can be seen with the naked eye, easily observable
    • Microscopic - very small structures, can only be viewed with a microscope
  5. Levels of organization
    • 1. Chemical level - made up of atoms to form molecules
    • 2. Cellular level - made up of molecules
    • 3. Tissue level - made up of similar cells
    • 4. Organ level - made up of similar tissues
    • 5. Organ System level - made up of organs that work closely together
    • 6. Organism level - the human organism is made up of many organ systems
  6. Integumentary System
    • - forms the external body covering
    • - protects deeper tissue from injury
  7. Skeletal System
    • - protects and supports the body's organs
    • - provides muscle attachement for movement
  8. Muscular System
    • - allows for movement
    • - maintains posture
  9. Nervous System
    • - fast acting control system using electrical signals
    • - responds to internal and external change
  10. Endocrine System
    - secretes regulatory hormones; growth, reproduction, & metabolism
  11. Cardiovascular System
    • - transports materials through the body by blood pumped by heart
    • - nutrients, wastes, carbon dioxide, oxygen
  12. Lymphatic System
    • - returns fluids to blood vessels
    • - involved in immunity
  13. Respiratory System
    • - gas exchange
    • - keeps blood supplied with oxygen
    • - removes carbon dioxide
  14. Digestive System
    • - breaks down food
    • - allows for nutrients to be absorbed in the blood
    • - eliminated indigestible material
  15. Urinary System
    • - eliminates nitrogenous wastes
    • - regulations of materials: water & electrolytes
  16. Reproduction System
    • - only system different in male & female
    • - production of offspring
  17. Describe the anatomical position
    • - body erect
    • - feet facing forward, slightly apart
    • - palms facing forward, thumbs facing out
  18. What are special terms used for?
    • - prevent misunderstanding and confusion
    • - exact terms used for:
    • - regions
    • - structure
    • - position
    • - direction
  19. Axial
    describes structures of the head, neck, and trunk
  20. Appendicular
    describes the limbs and their attachments to the body
  21. Frontal Plane
    • - vertical cut
    • - top to bottom, side to side
    • - produces a front and back
    • - also called a coronal plane
  22. Sagittal Plane
    • - vertical cut
    • - top to bottom, front to back
    • - produces left and right
    • - midsagittal is a cut directly in the center of the body, nose to umbilicus
  23. Oliblique Plane
    any diagonal cut
  24. Transverse Plane
    • - horizontal cut
    • - front to back
    • - produces a top and bottom
  25. Dorsal Cavity
    • - divided into the cranial and vertebral cavities
    • - holds the central nervous system (brain & spinal cord)
  26. Ventral Cavity
    • - divided into the thoracic & abdominopelvic cavities
    • - border between them is the diaphragm
  27. Thoracic Cavity
    two pleural cavities (lungs) and mediastinum (contains heart)
  28. Abdominopelvic Cavity
    • - abdomen is superior
    • - pelvic is inferior
    • - imaginary border is flaring pelvic bones
    • - no physical separation
    • - contains most internal organs and reproductive organs

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