Chemistry - Organic Compunds

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Author:
kristenanna
ID:
34425
Filename:
Chemistry - Organic Compunds
Updated:
2010-09-13 05:22:26
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Organic Chemistry
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Organic Chem
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  1. Complete Combution
    • Key term: excess oxygen
    • Eg. Ethane + Oxygen -> Carbon Dioxide + Water
  2. Incomplete Combustion
    • Key Term: colourless and toxic gas
    • Eg. Ethan + Oxygen -> Carbon Monoxide + Water

    or

    • Key Term: Black Soot
    • Eg. Ethane + Oxygen -> Carbon + Water
  3. Structural Formula
  4. Condensed Structural Formula
    • shows oder but not bonds
    • eg. CH3CH2CH3
  5. The first four alkanes are ___ at room temperature
    The first four alkanes are gases at room temperature
  6. Alkanes are insoluble in water so will form _ ______ as they are ___-____
    Alkanes are insoluble in water so will form 2 layers as they are non-polar
  7. Alkanes boiling points _______ with the length of the carbon chain. As .......
    Alkanes boiling point increase with the length of the carbon chain as more energy is needed to separate molecules.
  8. Alkanes have _____ ____________ forces but their ________ forces are ______ _____________
    Alkanes have covalent intramolecular forces. But their intermolecular forces are weak intermolecular
  9. Observation: when bromine water is added to a alkane it...
    Turns from orange to colourless very slowly under a catalyst of UV light
  10. Observation: WhenBromine is added to an alkene it...
    Rapidly changes from orange to colourless
  11. Functional Group: Alkenes
    Double bond on carbon chain
  12. Observation: When MnO4-/H+ is added to an alkane ...
    It remains purple
  13. Observation: When MnO4-/H+ is added to an alkene ...
    It turns from purple to colourless
  14. Markovnikovs's Rule
    A hydrogen will be added to the carbon of the double which already has the most hydrogens. (Major product)
  15. Hydrogenation Catalyst
    • Pt at room temp
    • Ni/150
  16. Hydrogenation Equation
    Alkene + Hydrogen --Pt or Ni/150--> Alkane
  17. Halogenation Caltalyst
    None
  18. Halogenation Equation (Alkene)
    Alkene + Halogen ---> Haloalkane
  19. Hydration Catalyst
    dil H2SO4 at 330'C
  20. Hydration Equation (Alkene)
    Alkene + Water --> Alcohol
  21. Halogenation Equation (Alkane)
    Alkane + Halogen --UV Light--> Haloalkane + H(haloalkane)
  22. Halogen Halide Reaction (Alkene)
    Alkane + Hydrogen Halide --> Haloalkane
  23. Oxidation Catalyst
    MnO4-/H+
  24. Oxidation Equation
    Alkene + Acidified Pottasium Permanganate --> Diol
  25. Polymermerisation Catalyst
    High temp and pressure
  26. Dehydration Catalyst
    conc H2SO4
  27. Dehydration Equation
    CH3CH2OH -conc H2SO4-> CH2=CH2 + H2O
  28. Cracking
    • Alkane --Fe--> Alkane + Alkene
    • eg. C20H42--Fe--> C10H22 + C10H20
  29. Cracking Catalyst
    Fe or Al2O3
  30. Functional Group: Alkyne
    Triple bond between Carbons
  31. Functional Group: Alcohols
    OH (hydroxyl)
  32. Clasifications alcohols/haloalkanes
    The number of carbons the functional group is attached to determines the clasification.
  33. Oxidation Reagent (Primary Alcohol)
    • MnO4/H+ Purple --> Colourless
    • Cr2O7/H+ Orange --> Green
  34. Oxidation (primary alcohols)
    Primary Alcohol + Catalyst --> Carboxylic Acid
  35. Alcohols have a ______ melting point than hydrocarbons
    higher
  36. Functional Group: Carboxlic Acids
    COOH
  37. Carboxylic acids have _____ melting points than alcohols
    higher
  38. Carboxylic acids turns _____ litmus paper _____.
    Carboxylic acids turn blue litmus paper red.
  39. Carboxylic acids do/do not conduct electricity due to .....
    Carboxylic acids do conduct electricity die to free moving ions.
  40. Carboxylic Acids + Metal --> _______ + ________
    Carboxylic Acids + Metal --> Metal Salt + Hydrogen
  41. Metal salts have a sufix of ______
    Metal salts have a sufix of anoate
  42. Acid + Base --> _____ + ______
    Acid + Base --> metal salt + water
  43. Acid + Carbonate --> _______ + _______ + ________
    Acid + Carbonate --> metal salt + water + carbon dioxide
  44. Functional Group: Esters
    COO
  45. Naming Esters
    • C=O side - anoate
    • O side - thyl
  46. Name :
    Methyl Ethanoate
  47. Name:
    propyl methanoate
  48. Name:
    ethyl propanoate
  49. Name:
    butyl propanoate
  50. Carboxylic Acid + Alcohol --H2SO4--> ____ + _____
    Carboxylic Acid + Alcohol --H2SO4--> ester + water
  51. Catalyst: Esterfication
    conc H2SO4

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