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Define open systems
Organizations that are affected by, and that affect, their environment.
Goods and services organizations take in and use to create products and services.
The products and services organizations create.
Define external environment.
All relevant forces outside a firm's boundaries, such as competitors, customers, the government, and the economy
Define competitive environment.
The immediate environment surrounding a firm; includes suppliers, customers, rivals, and the like
The general environment, includes governments, economic conditions, and other fundamental factors that generally affect all organizations.
Measures of various characteristics of the people who make up groups or other social units.
The process of comparing an organization's practices and technologies with those of other companies.
Creating supplies of excess resources in case of unpredictable needs.
Leveling normal fluctuations at the boundaries of the environment.
Define independent strategies.
Strategies that an organization acting on its own uses to change some aspect of its current environment.
Define cooperative strategies.
Strategies used by 2 or more organizations working together to manage the external environment.
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