Lecture:Cell Metabolism (not lipoproteins)

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VASUpharm14
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Lecture:Cell Metabolism (not lipoproteins)
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2010-09-17 22:10:59
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IBHS 523: Nickola exam 2
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  1. ATP
    High energy molecule
  2. Stored energy
    nucleotide + 1 or 2 Pi
  3. Hydrolysis of __________ (first/ middle/ terminal) phosphate of ATP releases how much energy??
    Terminal; ~7.3 kcal/mole
  4. ATP --> ?
    ADP + Pi + ENERGY
  5. Mitochondria
    membranous organelle producing ATP; powerplant of cell
  6. context: mitochondria amounts
    RBC
    none
  7. context: mitochondria amounts
    liver cells
    multiple
  8. context: mitochondria amounts
    muscle cells
    multiple
  9. context: mitochondria
    outer membrane
    separates mitochondria from cytoplasm
  10. context: mitochondria
    inner membrane
    • folds (cristae) increase surface area = increased ATP production.
    • location of ETC (oxidative phosphorylation & mucho ATP
    • production)
  11. context: mitochondria
    matrix
    • “Liquid” inside inner membrane
    • -location of TCA cycle
  12. anabolism
    • sum of all synthesis reactions.
    • small molecules --> larger molecules; requires energy
  13. why do cells synthesize new organic molecules (3)?
    • 1. Cell growth
    • 2. maintenance
    • 3. repair & synthesis of energy reserves (glycogen, proteins)
  14. catabolism
    • sum of all decomposition reactions
    • larger molecules --> smaller molecules; produces energy (directly – cleave and get energy from ATP or indirectly
    • – take it to make other things like TCA and get the energy later.)
  15. 2 reasons products go into "nutrient pools"
    • 1) Anabolism: making new molecules
    • 2) Further Catabolism in mitochondria: 40% = ATP synthesis; 60% = ‘lost’ as heat
  16. metabolism
    • anabolism + catabolism
    • All chemical reactions occurring in organism
  17. context: mitochondria's energy sources
    1st choice
    • Glucose - Source: diet & glycogen stores (liver/muscle)
    • -only fuel the brain uses under non-starvation conditions & only fuel that RBCs use
  18. context: mitochondria's energy sources
    2nd choice
    • Triglycerides - TG --> F.A. + glycerol
    • -Source: diet & triglyceride stores (adipocytes)
  19. context: mitochondria's energy sources
    3rd choice
    • Proteins - Protein --> amino acids
    • -Source: diet & protein stores (muscle) only used under duress
  20. context: carbohydrate metabolism
    cellular respiration
    • the use of O2 to convert organic molecules into CO2 & H2O (by removing electrons) in order to create energy
    • C6H12O6 + 6O2 --> 6CO2 + 6 H2O + Energy
  21. 4 processes involved in cellular respiration (and O2 requirement)
    • 1) glycolysis - molecular O2 not needed = anaerobic
    • 2) TCA Prep - O2 Indirectly needed
    • 3) TCA cycle - O2 Indirectly needed
    • 4) Electron transport chain (ETC) - O2 Directly needed
  22. Coenzymes
    • Non-protein, organic molecules; usually vitamins.
    • Carry hydrogen atoms (H) released during cellular respiration
  23. Context: Coenzymes
    H atom
    • = proton (H+) + electron (e-).
    • -2H reduce NAD+ & FAD into NADH & FADH2
    • -Note: NADH = NADH + H+ (NADH has 2 e-)
    • -NADH & FADH2 are used to make ATP in ETC
    • H = reduced!
  24. NAD stands for
    • Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide
  25. FAD stands for
    • Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide
  26. 1 NADH = ? ATP
    • 2 or 3 ATP
    • 2 = NADH made during glycolysis only yields 2 ATPs
  27. 1 FADH = ? ATP
    2 ATP
  28. Glycolysis
    location?
    process?
    • cytoplasm;
    • 1)Glucose phosphorylated
    • -->2 ATPs used
    • -->can’t exit cell
    • 2) 6 Carbon converted into 2 @3 Carbon
    • 3) Oxidation of G-3P via NAD+
    • -End product of 2 Pyruvate
    • 4) 1 Glucose converted into 2 pyruvate / pyruvic acid (same thing)
    • 4 ATP generated
    • NOTE: Start up Cost of 2 ATP
    • Pay-o-la = 2 ATP (cash) and 2 NADH (Checks)

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