MedMicro-Antibiotics

Card Set Information

Author:
BigMig
ID:
34487
Filename:
MedMicro-Antibiotics
Updated:
2010-09-26 22:55:17
Tags:
Antibiotics
Folders:

Description:
Antibiotics
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user BigMig on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. Penicillins
    • Bind PBPs, Bactericida;, GM+.
    • Inhibited by Beta lactamases; Efflux of drug; Porin size (Gm-)
    • PenG=IV, IM; PenV=PO; 1st generation; effective vs growing bacteria
  2. Methicillin (IV), Dicloxacillin, Naficillin, Oxacillin (PO)
    • Gm+
    • Same inhibition as Penicillins
    • Resistances due to penicillinase of Staph (mec A encodes PBP2); CA has PV toxin
  3. Ampicillin
    Amoxicillin
    • Bind PBPs, Bactericidal, Gm+; growing E. coli, Proteus
    • Same inhibition as penicillins
    • PO; 2nd generation, Broad-spectrum
  4. Carbenicillin, Ticarcillin, Piperacillin
    • Bind PBPs, Bactericidal, Gm+ & Gm-, including Pseudomonas
    • Same inhibition as Penicillins
    • PO, 3rd generation, Extended Spectrum
  5. Cefazolin, Cephalothin, Cefalexin
    • Bind PBPs
    • Bactericidal
    • E.coli, Klebs, Proteus, Gm+ cocci
    • Inhibition - Pen
    • 1st gen cephs, Narrow spectrum
  6. Cefoxitin, Cefaclor
    • Bind PBPs
    • Bactericidal
    • 1st gen microbes + H. flu, Enterobacteriaceae, Bacteriodes
    • Inhibition - Pen
    • 2nd gen, Expanded spectrum
  7. Ceftazidine, Cefixime, Cefotaxime, Ceftriaxone
    • Bind PBPs
    • Bactericidal
    • Broad Spectrum +, Psuedo. Aerug.
    • Inhibition - Pen
    • 3rd gen, Broad spectrum, including Meningtis in kids
  8. Cefepime
    • Bind PBPs
    • bactericidal
    • Broad spectrum + Pseudo. Aerug.
    • 4th gen; Ext spectrum
  9. Carbapenems
    • Bind PBPs
    • Bactericidal
    • Broad spectrum
    • Resistant to Beta-Lactamases
    • Broad Spectrum
  10. Monobactams
    (Aztreonam)
    • Bind PBPs
    • Bactericidal
    • Aerobic Gm; Enterobacteriaceae
    • resistant to Beta-lactamases
    • IV use; Narrow spect vs Gm- Rods; Given to those allergic to penicillin
  11. Clavulanis acid
    Tazo- & Sulbactams #
    • Beta-lactamase inhibitors
    • Depends on penicillin
    • Variable targets
    • Plasmid and Chrom. Encoded
    • Dependent on Penicillin
  12. Vancomycin
    • Affects (D-ala)2 chain in growing cells
    • MRSA; C. diff; No effect vs E. faecium or faecalis
    • Inh - Doesnt cross OM of Gm-; Modify D-ala to D-ala-D-ser or D-lactate
    • Given IV; Rx vs antibiotic assoc. colitis (AAC); Drug of last resort except for MRSA, AAC
  13. Isoniazid
    • Affects mycolic acid synthesis
    • Bactericidal
    • Mycobacteria (growing cells)
    • Dec drug uptake; res in TB
    • PO; 1st line TB Rx; Hepatotoxic
  14. Aminoglycosides
    (Streptomycin, Gentamycin, Kanamycin, Tobramycin, Neomycin, Spectinomycin)
    • Irreversible bind 30S ribosomes
    • bactericidal
    • Gm- (include Pseudomonas; ineffective vs. anaerobes, streptococci, enterococci)
    • Mutation in 30S binding site; Dec. drug uptake; Enzymatic modification of drug
    • Nephro- & ototoxic; Streptomycin 1st line vs. TB
  15. Tetracyclines
    • Reversible bind 30S ribo. subunits
    • Bacteriostatic
    • Selective Gm- and +; Chlamydia, Rickettsia, Mycoplasma
    • Dec. drug uptake; Active efflux; Protection of 30S ribo
    • Stain teeth in young kids <8 y/o; NVD; Photosens.
  16. Macrolides
    (Erythromycin, Azithromycin, Clarithromycin, Telithromycin)
    • Reversible bind 50S ribo subunit
    • Bacteriostatic
    • MAC complex; Mycoplasma; Pneumococcus; Chlamydia ineffective vs. Enterobacteriaceae
    • Methylation of 23S rRNA; dec drug uptake; Intrinsic res. of OM for Enterics
    • NV Crosses placenta; Hepatotoxic
  17. Rifamycin B
    (Rifampin, Rifabutin)
    • Binds RNA polymerase
    • Bactericidal vs. TB; Static vs. Staph & Strep
    • TB; Neisseria meningitides, prophylaxis, M. avium
    • Gm+: altered Beta subunit; Gm-: Decrease drug uptake
    • Turns urine orange; 1st line vs TB
  18. Lincosamides
    (Clindamycin)
    • Bind 50S ribo subunits
    • Bacteriostatic
    • Strep, Staph, Gm - rods; anaerobes except C. difficile
    • Inh - Plasmid - encoded res.
    • NVD; Skin rashes
  19. Pleuromutilins
    (Tiamulin, retapamulin)
    Altabax
    Interact with 50S ribo subunit at peptidyl trans. center at A&P binding sites (a)

    • Staph aureus, Strep. pyo, Pneumococcus, H flu, Moraxella, anaerobes (P acnes) (b)
    • Mutations in rplC (Staph aureus)
    • Site irritation
  20. Cloramphenicol (Cm or Cam)
    • Revers. binds 50S ribo; prevents peptide bond formation
    • Bacteriostatic ex for H. flu, Meingococcus (cidal)
    • Salmonella typhi
    • Cm acetyl-transferase; Alter OM porins
    • Aplastic anemia; Toxic for neonates; Drug of last resort except for typhoid fever
  21. Oxazolidinones
    (Linezolid)
    • bind 50S at 23S rRNA to inhibit pr synthesis
    • Bacteriostatic ex. for strep (cidal)
    • Staph, Strep, Enterococci, esp. VRE
    • Mutation of 23S rRNA binding site
    • Thrombocytopenia, neutropenia
  22. Streptogramins (Synercid): Quinupristin & Dalfopristin
    • Two drugs bind different sites on 50S ribo
    • bactericidal ex. for E. faecium
    • Gm+, including S.aureus
    • Efflux mech. (Esp. E. faecalis)
    • IV; Arthralgia
  23. Sulfonamides
    • PABA antagonist
    • Bacteriostatic
    • Broad Spect
    • Plasmid encoded enzyme; Pseudomonas
    • Allergic rxn; Jaundice
  24. Trimethoprim
    • Dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor
    • Bacteriostatic
    • Broad Spectrum
    • Plasmid-encoded enzyme; Pseudomonas
    • Megaloblastic anemia, leukopenia, granulocytopenia
  25. Dapsone
    • Dihydrofolate
    • Leprosy
    • Rash, Hemolysis
  26. Flouroquinolones
    (Ciprofloxacin, Levofloxacin, Ofloxacin,Gemifloxacin, Naldixic acid)
    • Inhibit alpha subunit of DNA Gyrase (topo II & IV)
    • Bactericidal
    • Wide range
    • Altered alpha subunit, DNA gyrase; qnrA, qnrB on plasmid ^ decrease drug uptake feq of 10E-8
    • NVD, arrhythmias, arthropathy in patients <10 y/o
  27. Ethambutol
    • Inhibits arabinogalactan synthesis
    • Mycobacteria
    • Inh - Decrease drug uptake; altered target sites
    • 1st line vs TB
  28. Pyrazinamide
    • Inhibits arabinogalactan sythesis
    • Mycobactera
    • Inh - Decrease drug uptake; altered target sites
    • 1st line vs TB
  29. Pyrazinamide
    • Mycobacteria
    • pncA mutations
    • 1st line vs TB
  30. Polymixin B, Polymixin E (colistin)
    • Interact w/ LPS, phospholipids in OM
    • Bactericidal
    • Gm - including Pseudomonas; but not Proteus and Neisseria
    • Inh - Gm+ lack outer membrane
    • Topical use; nephrotoxic
  31. Bacitracin
    • inhibits lipid carrier of peptidoglycan
    • Gm+
    • Inh - Gm-: intrinsic res; membrane impermeable
    • Topical use; Nephrotoxic
  32. Metronidazole
    • Reduction of nitro group disrupts DNA
    • Anaerobes, protozoans
    • Inh - Decrease uptake; elimination of reduced nitro group
    • No effect vs aerobes or facult. NV with EtOH; GI irritant; Not used with CNS disease -
  33. Augmentin
    Combination of penicillin + Beta-lactamase inhibitor
  34. Gemifloxacin or Factive
    • Used to treat pneumonia
    • acute sinusitis
  35. 1st Line TB drugs
    INH, rifampin, ethambutol, pyrazinamide (rifabutin no FDA approved)
  36. 2nd line TB drugs
    • Cycloerine, ethionomide, p-aminosalicylate, streptomycin, capreomycin
    • (levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, amikacin/kanamycin no FDA-approved)

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview