PSYC Exam 1

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miserly5
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34493
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PSYC Exam 1
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2010-09-13 15:09:43
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psyc psychology exam
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The vocabulary/ basic concepts for exam 1
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  1. Adaptations
    In evolutionary theory, the physical characteristics, skills, or abilities that increase the chances of reproduction or survival and are therefore likely to be passed along to future generations.
  2. Behaviorism
    A psychological approach that emphasizes the forces in producing behavior.
  3. Critical Thinking
    A systematic way of evaluating information in order to reach reasonable conclusions.
  4. Culture
    The beliefs and customs that exist within a group of people who share a common language and environment and that are transmitted through learning from one generation to the next.
  5. Dualism
    The philosophical idea that the mind exists separately from the physical body
  6. Evolutionary Theory
    In psychological science, a theory that emphasizes the inherited, adaptive behavior and mental activity throughout the entire history of a species.
  7. Functionalism
    An approach to psychology concerned with the adaptive purpose or function of mind and behavior.
  8. Gestalt Theory
    A theory based on the idea that the whole of personal experience is different from simply the sum of its constituent elements.
  9. Introspection
    A systematic elimination of subjective mental experiences that requires people to inspect and report on the content of their thoughts.
  10. Nature-Nurture Debate
    The argument concerning whether psychological characteristics are biloigically innate or aquired through education, experience, and culture.
  11. Mind-Body Problem
    A fundamental issue that considers whether mind and body are separate and distinct or whether the mind is simply the subject experience of the physical brain.
  12. Natural Selection
    Darwin's theory that those who inherit characteristics that help tham adapt to their particular environment have a select advantage over those who do not.
  13. Psychoanalysis
    A methods developed by Sigmund Freud that attempts to bring the unconscious into conscious awareness so that conflicts can be revealed.
  14. Psychological Practitioners
    Those who apply findings from psychological science in order to assist people in their lives.
  15. Psychological Science
    BOOK: The study of the mins, brain and behavior

    ACHEE: The study of observable behavior and unobservable mental processes.
  16. Mind
    mental activity such as your thoughts and feelings
  17. Stream of Consciousness
    a phrase coined by William James to describe one's continuous series of ever-changing thoughts.
  18. Sturcturalism
    an approach to psychology based on the idea that conscious experience can be broken down into its basic underlying components or elements.
  19. Unconscious
    A term that identifies mental processes that operate below the level of conscious awareness.
  20. Accuracy
    The extent to which an experimental measure is free from error.
  21. Case Study
    a research methods that involves the intensive examination of one person
  22. Central Tendency
    a measure that represents the typical behavior of the group.
  23. Con found
    Anything that affects a dependent variable that may unintentionally vary between the different experimental conditions of a study.
  24. Correlational Study
    a research method that examines how variables are naturally related in the real world, without any attempt by the researcher to alter them.
  25. Data Dependent Variable
    In an experiment, the measure that is affected by manipulation of the independent variable.
  26. Descriptive Study
    A research method that involves observing and noting the behavior of peoplr or other animals in order to provide a systematic and objective analysis of behavior.
  27. Experiment
    A study that tests casual hypothesis by measuring and manipulating variables.
  28. Experimenter Expectancy Effect
    actual change in the behavior of the people or animals being observed that is dud to observer bias.
  29. Hypothesis
    a specific prediction of what should be observed in the world if a theory is correct.
  30. Independent Variable
    In an experiment, the condition that is manipulated by the experimenter to examine its impact on the dependent variable.
  31. Inferential Statistics
    A set of procedures used to make judgments about whether differences actually exist between sets of numbers.
  32. Informed Consent
    a process in which people are given full information about a study, which allows them to make an acknowledgeable decision about whether to participate.
  33. Institutional Review Board
    Groups of people responsible for reviewing proposed research to ensure that it meets the accepted standards of science and provides for the physical and emotional well-being of research participants.
  34. Naturalistic Observations
    a passive descriptive study in which observers do not change or alter on going behavior.
  35. Observed Technique
    a research method of careful and systematic
  36. Observer Bias
    Systematic errors in observation that occurs due to an observer's expectation
  37. Participant Observation
    a types of descriptive study in which the researcher is actively involved in the situation.
  38. Psychological Assessment
    a research method that examines how changes in bodily functions are associated with behavior or mental state.
  39. Random Assignment
    The procedure for placing research participants into the conditions of an experiment in which each participant has an equal chance of being assigned to any level of the independent variable.
  40. Reaction Time
    a qualification of performance behavior that measures the speed of a response
  41. Reactivity
    The effect that occurs when the knowledge that one is being observed alters the behavior being observed.
  42. Replication
    repetition of an experiment to confirm the results
  43. Research
    Scientific process that involves the systematic and careful collection of data
  44. Response Performance
    a research method in which researchers quantify perceptual or cognitive processes in response to a specific stimulus.
  45. Self-Report Method
    a method of data collection in which people are asked to provide information about themselves, such as in questionnaire or surveys.
  46. Socially Desirable Responding
    When people respond to a question in a way that is most socially acceptable or that makes them look good.
  47. Standard Deviation
    a statistical measure of how far away each value is on average from the mean
  48. Theory
    a model of interconnected ideas and concepts that explains what is observed and makes predictions about future events.
  49. Third-Variable Problem
    When the experimenter cannot directly manipulate the independent variable and therefore cannot be confident that another, unmeasured variable is not the actual cause of differences in the dependent variable.
  50. Validity
    the extent to which the data collected address the research hypothesis in the way intended
  51. Psychodynamic Theory
    Freudian theory that unconscious forces, such as wishes and motive, influence behavior
  52. Psychosexual Stage
    According to Freud, the developmental stages that correspond to the pursuit of satisfaction of libidinal urges.
  53. Id
    In psychodynamic theory, the component of personality that is completely submerged in the unconscious and operates according to the pleasure principle.
  54. Superego
    in the psychodynamic theory, the internalization of societal and parental standards of conduct.
  55. Ego
    In psychodynami theory, the component of personality that tries to satisfy the wishes of the id while being responsive to the dictates of superego.
  56. Defense Mechanisms
    Unconscious mental strategies the mind use to protect itself from conflict and distress

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