Chapter 7 Medical Terms

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axelnock001
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Chapter 7 Medical Terms
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2010-09-14 12:23:19
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Medical Terminology
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EMT course
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  1. Anatomy
    refers to the structure of the body and the relationship of its parts
  2. physiology
    the function of the living body and its parts
  3. Supine position
    patient is lying face on his back
  4. Prone position
    laying facedown on stomach
  5. Lateral recumbent position(recovery)
    Left or right side
  6. Fowler position
    The patient is lying on his back with his upper body elevated at a 45-60 degree angle
  7. Semi-Fowler position
    The patient is lying on his back with the upper body elevated at an angle less than 45 degrees
  8. Terndlenburg position
    The pation is lying on his back with legs elevated higher than the head and body on an inclined plane
  9. Shock position
    only feet and legs are elevated approximately 12 inches
  10. anatomical planes
    Imaginary divisons of the body
  11. Sagittal plane
    a vertical plane that runs lengthwise and divides the body into right and left segments
  12. Frontal or coronal plane
    plane divides the body into front and back halves
  13. Transverse or horizontal plane
    plane is parallel with the ground and divides the body into upeer and lower halves. Also called axial plane
  14. Midline
    line drawn vertically through the middle of the patients body and continuing through the nose down the navel and to the ground between the legs
  15. Midaxillary line
    PAtient standing in profile, take a imaginary line vertically from the middle of the patients armpit down to the ankle
  16. Transverse line
    Visualize the normal anatomical position. An imaginary line horizontally through the patients waist.
  17. Superior plane
    Toward the head or above the point of reference
  18. Inferior plane
    Toward the feet or below the reference point
  19. anterior
    towards the front
  20. posterior
    towards the back
  21. Dorsal and Ventral planes
    Dorsal means toward backbone, ventral means toward front (belly)
  22. Medial
    Towards the midline or center of body
  23. Lateral
    To left or right of the midline, or away from the midline of the body
  24. bilateral
    both sides of midline
  25. Proximal
    near the point of reference
  26. Distal
    distant, or far from point of reference
  27. Midclavicular
    center of each collarbones(clavicle)
  28. Midaxillary
    center of armpit to ankle, standing in profile
  29. Plantar
    Sole of foot
  30. Palmar
    Palm of hand
  31. Ligament
    connects bone to bone
  32. tendon
    connects muscle to bone, and various other connective tissues
  33. Cranium
    Top, back, and sides of the skull plus the forehead. Consists of occipital, two parietal, two temporal, and frontal bones
  34. Maxillae bone
    fused bones of upper jaw
  35. zygomatic bones
    Cheek bones
  36. Mandible
    Lower jaw
  37. Cervical Spine
    c1-c7(neck) The first seven vertebrae
  38. Thoracic spine
    T1-T12(upper back) The 12 thoracic vertebrae that are directly inferior to the cervical spine form the upper back.
  39. Lumbar spine
    L1-L5(Lower back) the next five vertebrae form the lower back
  40. Sacral Spine
    s1-s5(back wall of the pelvis) the next five vertebrae are fused together to form the rigid part of the posterior side of the pelvis
  41. Coccyc
    Tail Bone. The last four vertebrae are fused together and do not have the protrusions characteristic of the other vertebrae
  42. Thorax
    Chest, is composed of the ribs, sternum(breastbone) and thoraqcic spine. Also holds the 24 ribs(12 pairs)
  43. True Ribs
    First seven pairs of ribs attached to the sternum by cartilage
  44. False Ribs
    last 5 pairs of ribs that are floating, not attached to the sternum
  45. Sternum
    Chestbone
  46. Pelvis
    Doughnut shaped strucute that consists of several bones
  47. Clavicle
    Collar bone, attached to the superior portoin of the sternum
  48. manubrium
    superior part of the sternum, where the clavicle attaches
  49. xiphoid process
    inferior portion of the sternum
  50. iliac crest
    each side of the pelvis, forms "wings"
  51. Pubis
    anterior and inferior portion of the pelvis
  52. ischium
    posterior and inferior portion of the pelvies
  53. acetabulum
    The joint made up of the pelvic socket, where the fermur fits
  54. Femur
    Thighbone
  55. Patella bone
    Knee cap
  56. Tibia & Fibia
    Shin Bone and posterior bone is fibia
  57. Malleolus
    Ankle joint
  58. Calcaneus bone
    Heel bone
  59. Metatarsals
    5 bones that make up majority of foot
  60. Phalanges
    toe bones, 14 of them in all. two in big toe and 3 in the others
  61. scapula
    Shoulder bone, pairs up with the clavical bone to form a shoulder girdle
  62. Humerus
    Largest arm bone, fits into shoulder blade
  63. Radius and ulna
    The radius is located on the thumb side, and the ulna is on the little finger side
  64. Carpals
    bones of the wrist
  65. Metalcarpals
    bones of the hand
  66. Flexion
    Bending toward the body or decreasing the angle between the bones or parts of the body
  67. Extension
    Straightening away from the body or increasing the angle between the bones or parts of the body
  68. Abduction
    Movement away from the midline
  69. Adduction
    Movement toward the midline
  70. Circumduction
    A combination of the four motions as is possible with the shoulder joint
  71. Pronation
    Turning the forearm so the palm of hand is turned toward the back
  72. Supination
    Turning the forearm so the palm of the hand is turned toward the front
  73. Ball and socket joint
    This type of joint permits the widest range of motions, ie shoulder joint.
  74. hinged joint
    Ie. elbow and knee
  75. Pivot Joint
    Ie vertebrae and wrist, allows a turning motion
  76. Gliding joint
    the simplest movement between bones occurs in a gliding joint, where one bones slides across the other.
  77. Saddle joint
    Ie Ankle joint moving up and down while slightly turned in
  78. Candyloid Joint
    Modified ball and socket, ie wrist move up down side to side but not full rotations
  79. Skeletal Muscle
    Under the control of the brain and nervous system, voluntary muscle can be contracted and relaxed by will of the individual.
  80. Smooth Muscle
    Involuntary muscle, is made up of large fibers that carry out the automatic muscular funtions through rythmic, wavelike movements. Ie intestines,
  81. Cardiac Muscle
    Found only in the walls of the heart, cardiac muscle is a special kind of involuntary muscle particularly suited for the work of the heart.
  82. Automaticity
    The ability to generate an impulse on its own, even when disconnected from the central nervous system. IE heart
  83. Respirations
    The process of moving oxygen and carbon dioxide across membranes, in and out of the alveoli, capillaries, and cells
  84. Oxygenation
    For of respiration in which oxygen molecules move across a membrane from an area of high oxygen concentation to an area of low oxygen.
  85. Ventilation
    Is the mechanical process by which air is moved in and out of the lungs
  86. Pharynx
    Throat
  87. Oropharynx
    portion of the pharynx where air enters through the mouth
  88. Nasopharynx
    Part of the pharynx where air from the nose enters
  89. Esophagus
    Leads to the stomach
  90. Trachea
    Leads to the lungs
  91. Larynx
    Voice box.
  92. Thyroid cartilage
    Anterior cartilage that covers the larynx
  93. cricoid cartialge.
    A firm, full ring of cartilage that forms the lower edge of the larynx
  94. Epiglottis
    Small, leaveshaped flap that covers and protects the trachea
  95. Bronchi
    Distal portion of the trachea brances into two main tubes, or bronchi, one brancing off into each lung
  96. Bronchioles
    subdivides of the bronchi, that continue into the lungs
  97. Alveoli
    Thousands of tiny airsacks that the bronchi lead into, where the actually site of gas exchanges
  98. Visceral pleura
    thing layer of connective tissue covering the outer surface of the lungs.
  99. pleural cavity
    a tiny space with negative pressure that allows the lungs to stay inflated
  100. Diaphragm
    a pwoerful, dome shaped muscle essential to breathing. Also seperates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity.
  101. intercostal muscles
    muscles between the ribs which help expand and contract the thoracic cavity.
  102. Pericardium
    A double walled sac that encloses the heart and prevents friction.
  103. Atria
    Upper chambers of the heart
  104. Ventricles
    Lower chambers of the heart. Pump blood out to the arteries
  105. Tricuspid valve
    Between the right atrium and right ventricle
  106. Pulmonary Valve
    At the base of the pulmonary artery in the right ventricle
  107. Mitral Valve
    Also known as the bicuspid valve, between the left atrium and the left ventricle
  108. aortic valve
    At the base of the aortic artery in the left ventricle
  109. Aorta
    The major artery from the heart, the aorta, lies in front of the spine and passes through the thoracic and adominal cavities.
  110. Coronary arteries
    The coronary arteries are the vessels that supply the heart itself with blood
  111. Carotid arteries
    Supply the brain and head with blood. Pulse of teh arteries can be felt on either side of the neck
  112. Femoral arteries
    The major artery of the thigh and supplies the groin and legs with blood.
  113. Dorsalis pedis arteries
    Pulsations of the dorsalis pedis, an artery in the foot, can be felt on the top surace of the foot on the big toe side.
  114. Posterior tibial arteries
    Calf to foot, can be felt on the ankle
  115. Brachial arteries
    the major artery of the upper arm, pulse can be felt at the front of the elbow and on the medial arm midway between the shoulder and elbow. used to asses a pulse on an infant
  116. Radial arteries
    The radial artery is the major artery of the arm distal to the elbow joint. It's pulse can be felt proximal to the thumb on the wrist. Main pulse when checking a patient
  117. Pulmonary arteries
    The pulmonary arteries, which originate at the right ventricle of the heart, carry oxygen depleted blood to the lungs, where the blood is oxygenated and return to the heart for curculation. (This is the only arteries that carry deoxygenated blood)
  118. arteriole
    the smallest version of artery
  119. Capillary
    a tiny blood vessel that connets an areriole to a venule, allwing for the exhange of gases, nutrients, and waste at the cellular level,
  120. Venule
    smallest branch of veins, connected to the distal end of cappilaries
  121. Vein
    Carriers blood back to the heart
  122. Venae cavae
    Carry oxygen depleted blood back the right atrium, where it beings circulation through the heart and lungs
  123. superior vena cava
    enter the top of the right atrium, carrying oxygen depleted blood from the upper body
  124. inferior vena cava
    brings oxygen-depleted blood into the bottom of the right atrium, from the lower body
  125. Pulmonary veins
    carry oxygen rich blood from the lungs to the left atrium. only veins that carry oxygenated blood
  126. Red blood cell
    Red cells give the blood its color, carry oxygen to the body cells, and carry carbon dixoide away from the cells
  127. White blood cells
    Part of the immune system and help to defend against infection
  128. Platelets
    Essential clotting factors, helps stop bleeding
  129. Plasma
    Liquid part of blood and transports nutrients to all tissues
  130. Blood pressure
    the force exerted by the blood on the interior walls of the arteris
  131. systolic blood pressure
    is exerted agasint the walls of the arteries when the left ventricle contracts. Measures the effectiveness of the pumping function of the left ventricle
  132. diastolic blood pressure
    is exerted agasint the walls of teh arteries then the left ventricle is at rest, or between contractions. Measures the resistance in the arteries between contractions
  133. Hydrostatic pressure
    Force exerted on the inside of the vessel walls as a result of blood pressure and volume
  134. Edema
    capillaries being to leak fluid, which is water and not whole blood. feet literalls swell up and leak
  135. Perfusion
    is the delivery of oxygen, glucose, and other nutrients to the cells of all organ systems, and the elmination of carbon dioxide and other waste products, which results from the constant adequate circulation of blood through the capillaries
  136. Hypoperfusion
    Shock, is the insufficient supply of oxygen and other nutrients to some of the bodys cells and the inadequate elimantion of carbon doixide and other wastes that result from inadequate circulation of blood.
  137. aerobic metabolism
    with oxygen
  138. anaerobic
    without oxygen
  139. Nervous system
    controls the coluntary and involuntary
  140. Central nervous system
    consists of the brain, the spinal cord
  141. cerebrospinal fluid
    a cushion of fluid that surrournds and protects the brain and spinal columb
  142. The cerebrum
    The outermost portion of the brain, the cerebrum occupies nearly all the cranial cavity. controls specific body functions, such as sensation, thought, and associative memory
  143. The cerebellum
    Called the small brain, located in the posterior and inferior aspect of the cranum. Coordinates muscle activity and maintains balance through impulses from the eyes and ears.
  144. Brainstem
    contains the repiratory center, the cardiac center, and the vasomotor center. the vasomotor center controls blood pressure by constricting and dilation of blood vessels
  145. peripheral nervous system
    composed of the nerves locatd outside the spinal cord and brain. ie sensation of touch/burn/cold
  146. sympathetic nervous system
    fight or flight, activated by stessors
  147. parasympathetic nervous sytem
    opposite to fight or flight, restors normal body functions, or depresses body function
  148. Reticular activating system(RAS)
    on/off center,
  149. Endocrine system
    is made up of ductless glands, the body regularts. secretions from these glands are called hormones
  150. Hormones
    Checmical substances that affect certain organs
  151. Thyroid gland
    which is located in the anterior neck, regulates metabolism, growth and development, and the activity of the nervous system.
  152. The parathyroid glands
    behind the thyroid glands, produce a hormone necessary for the metabolism of calcium and phosphorus in the bones.
  153. Adrenal glands
    Sit atob the kidneys, secrete epinephrine and norepinephrine, postpone muscle fatigue, increase storage of sugar, control kidney function, regulate the metabolism of stalt and water
  154. islets of langerhans
    in the pancreas, make insulin,which allows sugar to enter cells, and also produce glucagon, a hormone that raises the glucose level in the blood
  155. pituitary gland
    at the base of the brain, considered to be the master gland. it regulates growth, the thyroid and parathyroid glands, panreas, the gonads, the metabolism of fatty acids and some basic proteins, blood sugar reactions and urinary extretion
  156. Alpha1 and Beta hormones
    Alpha constricts blood vessels, and beta dialates our lungs
  157. integumentary system
    Skin
  158. Epidermis
    outmost layer of skin
  159. Dermis
    second layer of skin, much thicker than epidermis. contains the vast network of blood vessels that supply the skin
  160. subcutaneous layer
    layer of fatty tissues below the dermis
  161. Digestive system
    composed of alimentary tract, and the accessory organs.
  162. The stomach
    A large hollow organ, is the main organ of the digestive system. While digestion actually begins in the mouth, where saliva begins to break down foods, the majority of digestion takes place in the stomach, which secretes gastric juices that begin to converting ingested foods to a form that can be absorbed and used by the body.
  163. The pancreas
    is flat, solid organ that lies just inferior and posterior to the stomach. it secretes pancreatic juices that aid in the digestion of fats, starches, and proteins. the islets of langerhans, located int he pancreas, produce insulin that ruglates the amount of sugar in the blood stream.
  164. The Liver
    • Largest solid organ in the abdomen, lies immediately beneath the diaphragm in the right upper quadrants of the adominal cavity. The liver produces bile, which aids in the digestion of fat.
    • IT stores sugars until they are needed by the body. Also produces componets necessary for immune function. Toxic substances produced by digestion are rendered harmless in the liver
  165. The Spleen
    A solid organ located in the left upper quadrant of the adominal cavity. Help filtration of blood, and reservoir of blood the body can use in an emergency such as hermorhage.
  166. The gallbladder
    A hollow pouch, part of the bile duct leading from the liver. The gallbladder acts as a reservoir for bile.
  167. The small intestine
    Made up of 3 parts, recieves food from the stomach and secretions from the pancreas and liver. Digestion of food continues int he small intestine, where food is completely broken down into a form that be used by the body. nutrients are absorbed through the walls and circulated through the blood stream
  168. The large intestine
    is also called the colon, parts of food that cannot be absorbed by the body are passed as waste products from the small intestine into the large intestine, where the water is absorbed, and whatever remains is passed as stool.
  169. Mechinical process of digestion
    chewing, swallowing, peristalsis(rythmic movement of matter through the digestive tract) and defication(Shitting)
  170. Chemical process of digestions
    occurs when enzymes break foods down into simple componets that can be absorbed and used by the body.
  171. Renal system, and what it consists of
    urinary stystem, filters and excretes wastes from the blood. contains two kidneys, two ureters, which carry the wastes from the kidneys to bladder, one urinarry bladder, which stores the piss, and one urethtra which cariers urine from the bladder and outside the body.
  172. Kidneys
    filter waste from the bloodstream and help control blood pressure regulation
  173. Female reproductive system
    two ovaries, two fallopian tues, the uterus, the vagina and external genitals.
  174. The process of the heart contracting with electrical impulses
    the electric impulse orignates ate the sinoatrial(SA) node and travles the the atrio ventricular(av) node, which is locatd between the ventricles, and finally throught the bodle of his to the purkinjke fibers to the ventricles.
  175. Percentage the diaphragm and intercostal muscles contribute to inhalation.
    diaphragm is 60-70 and intercostal picks up the reaminag 30-40

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