General Concepts of Anatomy
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fascia cell composition
- 1) Static - fibroblasts, fat, fixed macrophages,
- mast cells
- 2) Mobile - other macrophages i.e. PMNs and
- other wandering cells (cytotoxic killer T cells)
1) Collagen - structural integrity
2) Elastin - elasticity
3) Reticular - support/rigidity (type of collagen)
function of fascia
a. Adds strength
- b. Provides continuity to structures
- covered\encircled by fascia
- c. Provides ease of movement by allowing
- structures to move easily over one another
- connective tissue layer found directly beneath the skin composed of two fairly indistinct
- layers: a more superficial layer composed mostly of fat, referred to as the
- "fatty layer"; a deeper, more membranous reinforcing layer referred
- to as the "membranous layer". In the abdomen, these layers are more
- distinct and are referred to as Camper's and Scarpa's fascia, respectively
- a "stocking‑like" vestment of fibrous connective tissue, devoid of fat,
- located deep to the superficial fascia. It surrounds the body musculature,
- forms sheaths for nerves and vessels and provides for general compartmentation
- by attaching to bony prominences. Also, provides accessory attachments of
- muscle to bone.
a narrow band of deep fascia associated with a joint which
- functions to hold tendons close to bones as the joint is moved; prevents
- “bowstringing” of tendons across joints
- a specialization of deep fascia that forms a partition between muscular groups in
- such areas as the upper and lower limbs and neck. These partitions assist in
- delineating muscular compartments that are most often named for the major
- function of the muscles located within the compartment. Intermuscular septa may also increase the
- strength of a muscle by providing areas of attachment for muscular fibers.
- a tubular sheath of deep fascia that surrounds arteries, veins, lymphatics and
- nerves that traverse and/or feed a muscular compartment.
- connective tissue membranes which surround tendons as sheaths, overlay boney prominences,
- and surround organs as bursal sacs, i.e., pleura, pericardium, and peritoneum. Their
- linings secrete serous fluid which reduces the frictional component of structures
- moving within or over them.
a. Support and protection of soft tissues
- b. Provides a system of levers for the action of
- skeletal muscles
c. Blood producing organ
d. Storage site for calcium and phosphorus
- outer mantel of compact bone;
- responsible for shape
- inner supportive layer of trabeculated "spongy" bone; responsible for
- innermost "hollow" area filled with marrow; may be "yellow"
- serving as a fat storage department or "red" serving as a blood forming organ
connective tissue layer surrounding bone which:
- 1) sends fibers (Sharpey) into the bone for
- anchoring purposes
- 2) possesses an inner layer of osteoprogenitor
- cells which participate in bone growth and repair
3) is highly innervated
- lines medullary spaces, is less well developed than periosteum, however, does possess
- osteoprogenitor cells.
skull, vertebral column, rib cage
limbs and bones of "girdle" which attach them to the axial skeleton.
carpals and tarsals
vertebrae, os coxa (hip), irregular bones of the skull, i.e., sphenoid, ethmoid, etc.
- scapula, sternum, ribs, flat bones of skull, i.e., parietal, occipital, frontal,
- develop within tendons where they cross long bones
- of the limbs. They help to reduce erosion of the tendons and help to provide the
- muscle with a greater mechanical advantage by changing the angle of approach
- of a tendon to its insertion
- expanded smooth articulating portions located at the ends
- of long bones
Line, ridge, crest, tubercle, tuberosity, spine, and trochanter
areas of relief in order of increasing size; provide sites for muscle attachment
smooth articulating surface
pi, fovea, fossa
depressions listed in increasing depth
appositional bone growth
- width: appositional growth is the result of synergistic activity of osteoclasts and osteoblasts to alternately remove bone
- from the wall of the medullary cavity and form new bone on its external
synarthrosis: joints united by fibrous tissue
amphiarthrosis: joined by cartilage
1) Occur only between bones of the skull
- 2) In the adult, bones united by sutures may be
- slightly moveable
- 1) Union between two bones is accomplished by a fibrous
- sheet or ligament, i.e., tibiofibular & tympanostapedial joints
- 2) Joints of this type vary in their degree of
joints united by hyaline cartilage
1) Epiphyseal plate
2) Normally immovable
- united by fibrocartilage
- 1) Symphysis pubis, joints between
- intervertebral bodies
2) Partially movable
characteristics of synovial joints
most common type of joint:
- 1) Articular surfaces covered by hyaline
- 2) Presence of a joint capsule surrounding a
- joint cavity
- 3) Joint capsule lined by a synovial membrane
- that secretes synovial fluid important for joint lubrication and is nutritive
- to the articular cartilage
- 4) Joint capsule reinforced with capsular
- 5) May possess a fibrocartilaginous articular
- disk or interarticular ligaments
6) Joints are freely mobile
describe the blood supply of synovial joint
- A rich network of vessels surrounds the joint supplying the epiphysis, joint capsule
- and synovial membrane, all areas except the articular cartilage.
innervation of synovial joints
- Joints are highly innervated, nerve endings being located in the articular
- capsule and synovial membrane.
- In general, nerves which supply muscles moving a specific
- joint also provide innervation to the overlying skin as well as to the interior of
- that joint.
- small articular surfaces slide one upon the other.
- facet joints of the vertebral column, intercarpal and intermetacarpal joints
actions of flexion and extension allowed around a single transverse axis.
(elbow,interphalangeal joints of the fingers and toes)
- a process of bone serves as a pin and is surrounded by an osseofibrous ring;
- allows rotational movement longitudinally oriented about a single axis.
(proximal radioulnar joint, atlantoaxial joint)
- modified ball and socket employing a shallow
- ellipsoidal socket and a ball that is not exactly round; allows movement in two planes (biaxial) at right
- angles to one another.
Examples: wrist joint (radiocarpal), metacarpophalangeal and metatarsophalangeal joints.
saddle (sellar) joint
- biaxial articulation where the surfaces of each articulating
- bone lie in opposite directions (concave in one direction, convex in another
- [like a saddle]) and the two bones reciprocally fit precisely with one another.
Examples: carpometacarpal joint of the thumb
ball and socket
- a convex head fits a concavity, more or less,
- precisely, allows greater freedom of motion
Examples: shoulder and hip joints
Muscles act upon articulated elements of the skeleton to provide movement only through contraction. A muscle exerts no action when it relaxes.
- connective tissue structures which hold tendons close to bones which they traverse,
- thereby preventing them from "bow-stringing" and facilitating their
- action by acting as pulleys.
- fluid filled sacs which lie between tendons and underlying bone or encircle tendons;
- prevents erosion of the tendon and facilitates its movement.
parallel fibers longitudinally oriented; weakest
many feathers next to one another; strongest
fast twitch muscles
- Muscles that can be contracted maximally for a short duration before fatiguing, i.e.
- gastrocnemius (jumping muscle)
slow twitch muscles
muscles that can be contracted for long durations before fatiguing; soleus (running muscle).
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