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Define phylogenetic behavior. (41, 3)
Bx relations that are based on the genetic endowment of and organism
What are fixed action patterns? (42,1) Be able to describe one of the examples.
Sequences of Bx that are phylogenetic in origin. Animal will complete the entire sequence even when the stimulus is removed
Male stickleback fish respond w/ a stereotyped sequence of aggressive displays and movement when another male enters his territory during mating season
What are reaction chains? How do they differ from fixed action patterns? What would happen if the stimulus that evokes behavior were removed? (42,4)
Similar to FAP except that each response in the chain requires an appropriate stimulus. If the provoking stimulus is removed then the chain stops
What is a reflex?
A reflex is an unlearned (innate, inherited, inborn) functional relation between a specific type of stimulus (S) and a specific response (R). When an unconditioned stimulus elicits an unconditioned response, the relationship is called reflex. That the S-R relation is unlearned/unconditioned means that the organism shows that relation without the necessity of any learning history. Memorize this definition. (See also JM p. 7)
Humans (and other organisms) are born with an array of responses that are elicited by specific stimuli, or reflexes. Table 1 (JM 10, 11) shows various human reflexes. You should memorize table 1.
List the three primary laws of reflex (44,3-5)
Law of threshold
At very weak intensities a stimulus will not elicit a response, but there is a point where the stimulus is elicited. There is a point below which no response is elicited and above which a response always occurs.
Law of intensity-magnitude
Describes the relationship b/t the intensity of the elicited stimulus and the size or magnitude of the response. As the intensity of the US increases so does the magnitude of the elicited UR.
Law of latency
Time b/t the onset of the elicited stimulus and the appearance of the reflexive response. As the intensity of the US increases the latency to the appearance of the elicited UR decreases
When does habituation occur? (44,7) Be able to explain the example given in 57,4.
- When a US repeatedly elicits a UR and the response gradually decreases in magnitude over time.
- A herbivore that does not habituate to rustling grass will not eat as often as the ones who do. Wind not only predators can cause grass to rustle.
What is the difference between ontogenetic and phylogenetic behaviors? (46, 1-2)
- Ontogenetic - the Bx of and organism that has been affected by environmental experiences.
- Phylogenetic - unlearned genetic Bx
If one presents a neutral stimulus and then a second or so later presents an unconditioned stimulus (US) for a reflex response, the neutral stimulus when later presented alone may elicit a type of response similar to the response elicited by the US. The once neutral stimulus is called conditioned stimulus (CS). The response elicited by the US is called an unconditioned response (UR); a similar response elicited by the CS is called conditioned response (CR). Memorize this definition (See all JM 16-17)
Read the description of Pavlov’s experiment in 46,4. Be able to summarize his experiment with dogs. Tip: Memorize the table (fig. 3.2). Also read Pavlov’s profile on page 12.
- Food in mouth (US)--------------> Salivation (UR)
- Light (CS)--------------------------> Salivation (CR)
Could you teach a rat to press a lever using respondent conditioning? (JM, 18, 4)
What does respondent extinction as a procedure involve? (48,3)
Repeatedly presenting the CS and not presenting the US
Distinguish between extinction as a procedure and as a process (48,4)
- Procedure - Repeatedly presenting the CS and not presenting the US after conditioning has occured
- Process - the decline in the intensity of the CR when the extinction procedure is in effect
What is spontaneous recovery? (49,1) How do behavior analysts explain this phenomenon? (49,4) – This will certainly be on the exam.
- The observation of an increase in the CR after respondent extinction has occurred.
- During Respondent conditioning many stimuli not specified by the researcher become CS. Spontaneous recovery may be caused by these unintentional CS that have not gone through extinction causing a CR
What is generalization? (49,5)
When an organism shows a CR to values of a CS that were not trained during acquisition
When does respondent discrimination occur? (50,3)
When an organism shows a CR to one stimulus but not to other similar events
Be able to reproduce Fig. 3.6 on page 51 and explain it. For example, with Delayed conditioning the CS is presented a few seconds before the US occurs (51-53 and lecture). See also JM 22,5-23,2.
What does second order conditioning involve? (53, 2)
Pairing a second CS2 with an already functioning CS1, rather than pairing a CS and US
What are compound stimuli (56,3)
Two CS are presented together before or during a US
Golden arches and smell of french fries
Describe the conditioning effect known as overshadowing (57, 2)
When a two or more simple stimuli are paired with a US the more salient CS will come to regulate the CR
Faint light and loud sound paired with food. Only the loud sound will evoke the CR
Describe the conditioning effect known as blocking (57,3; also JM 27,4-6),
When one CS paired with a US blocks another CS--->US pairing
- Tone paired with food = salivation
- Tone and light paired with food = salivation
- Tone = salivation
- Light = No salivation
Describe the effect known as conditioned suppression (57, 4)
- Neutral stimulus is paired with an aversive US. Multiple pairing result in CSave
- CSave elicits as Conditioned Emotional Response (CER) Fear
- CER stops the Bx
Be able to describe the Preparatory-response model (lecture) and give the “heroin overdose” example (55).