A&P Chapter 1 Review

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Anonymous
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34590
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A&P Chapter 1 Review
Updated:
2010-09-13 22:22:55
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Anatomy physiology
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General Orientation to Human Anatomy
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  1. Define Anatomy
    Study of structure and shape of body and its parts
  2. Define Physiology
    Study of how the body and its parts work or function
  3. How are anatomy and phsyiology related?
    Form (anatomy) determines function (physiology)
  4. Methods and their description used to study anatomy
    • PAID - PM
    • Palpation - touching
    • Auscultation - listening
    • Inspection - looking
    • Dissection - cutting
    • Percussion - tapping
    • Medical imaging - non-invasive radiology
  5. Describe methods used to study physiology
    • PEN
    • Pathophysiology - how diseases being and develop
    • Endocrinology - physiology of hormones
    • Neurophysiology - physiology of nervous system
  6. Explain how anatomical and physiological variation can impact patient care
    When A&P is taught, a reference man and reference woman is used. Each patient does not always fit the reference man/woman anatomy and physiology. Failure to recognize this variation can result in overmedication and medical mistakes.
  7. List and define the charateristics of life
    • Olives Make Really Good Meals DERE
    • Organization - Cells are basic unit; boundaries related to function
    • Movement - Locomotion; movement of substances
    • Responsiveness - Ability to sense change and react
    • Growth and Development - Increase cell size and number; change in form
    • Metabolism - Production, use and storage of energy
    • Digestion - Breakdown of food into simple molecules that can be absorbed by the body
    • Excretion - Elimination of waste
    • Reproduction - Production of new cells; production of progeny
    • Evolution - Changes occur over time through mutation
  8. Explan how body is organized from simplest level of organization to most complex
    • Organism contains
    • Organ Systems contains
    • Organs contains
    • Tissues contains
    • Cells contains
    • Organelles contains
    • Molecules contains
    • Atoms
  9. List 11 organ systems of the body and their major function
    • CELS Really Never Did U Much In Remebering
    • Cardiovascular - Transport
    • Endocrine - Slow acting control system; secretes regulatory hormones
    • Lymphatic - Disposes of debris; involved in immunity
    • Skeletal - Protects and supports body organs
    • Respiratory - keeps blood supplied with oxygen and removed C02
    • Nervous - Fast-acting control system; activates muscles and glands
    • Digestive - Breaks down food; allows for nutrient absorption
    • Urniary - Eliminates waste; maitains acid/base balance
    • Muscular - Allows locomotion; produces heat
    • Integumentary - protects; synthesizes Vitamin D
    • Reproductive - produces offspring
  10. Explain homeostatisis and its importance
    • Homeostatsis is a state of dynamic equilibrium.
    • Helps keep the body relatively contant and operate normally
  11. Explain a homeostatic mechanism and how it works
    • Stimulus - Receptor - Control Center - Effector
    • 1) Stimulus produces change in variable
    • 2) Change detected by receptor
    • 3) Input information sent from receptor to control center on afferent pathway
    • 4) Output information sent from control center to effector on efferent pathway
    • 5) Effector response feeds back to influence magnitude of stimulus and returns variable to homestatisis
  12. Explain negative and positive feedback and how they relate to homeostatsis
    • Negative Feedback is when the homestatic mechnism brings the variable back to the set point
    • Positive feedback is when the homeostatic mechanism pushes the variable further and further from the set point
  13. Demonstrate the anatomic position
    • - All joints extended
    • - palms supinated
    • - Feet flat on floor
    • - Arms at sides
  14. Describe 3 common body planes
    • Saggital - divides L and R sides of body
    • Transverse - divides superior and posterior parts of body
    • Frontal - divides anterior and superior parts of body
  15. List the body cavities and the organs they contain
    • Dorsal (back of body) - brain, vertebral column
    • Ventral (front of body) - Thoracic cavity, abdominal cavity, pelvic cavity
    • Thoracic - lungs, heart
    • Abdominal - digestive organs, kidneys, ureters
    • Pelvic - bladder, reproductive organs, rectum, urethra, reproductive organs
  16. Describe what role serous membranes play in forming body cavities
    Line the body cavity and the visceral organs and seperate organs from each other
  17. List the 9 abdominopelvic regions
    • Left hypochondriac
    • Epigastric
    • Right hypochondriac
    • Left lumbar
    • Umbilical
    • Right Lumbar
    • Left inguinal
    • Hypogastric
    • Right inguinal
  18. Identify the organs of the integumentary system
    • Skin
    • Nails
    • Hair
  19. Identify the organs of the skeletal system
    • Bones
    • Cartilage
    • Skull
  20. Identify the organs of the muscular system
    Skeletal muscles
  21. Identify the organs of the nervous system
    • Brain
    • Spinal column
    • Nerves
  22. Identify the organs of the endocrine system
    • Thyroid glands
    • Ovaries
    • Testes
    • Adrenal glands
    • Pancreas
    • Thymus gland
  23. Identify the organs of the cardiovascular system
    • Heart
    • Blood vessels
  24. Identify the organs of the lymphatic system
    • Lymphnodes
    • Spleen
  25. Identify the organs of the respiratory system
    • Nasal cavity
    • Trachea
    • Larynx
    • Bronchii
    • Lungs
  26. Identify the organs of the digestive system
    • Oral cavity
    • Esophagus
    • Stomach
    • Large intestine
    • Small intestine
    • Rectum
    • Liver
    • Gallbladder
    • Pancreas
  27. List the organs on the Urinary system
    • Kidneys
    • Ureters
    • Bladder
    • Urethra
  28. List the organs in the Reproductive System
    • Woman:
    • Ovaries
    • Vagina
    • Uterus
    • Man:
    • Penis
    • Testis

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