Biology Exam 1 terms

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Biology Exam 1 terms
2010-09-14 01:22:21
Biology Exam terms

Biology Exam 1 terms
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  1. plasma membrane
    -membrane that surround sthe cell and separates it from the outside/ selectively permeable
  2. DNA
    -genetic material of the cell/ stores instructions for making parts of the cell and new cells
  3. genes
    -instructions to make parts of cells or new cells
  4. transcription
    • -copying the gene into a message molecule called RNA
    • -occues in nucleus
  5. translation
    • -creating the protein from the gene's plan via the RNA copy
    • -occurs in cytoplasm
  6. ribosomes
    • -workbenches that put the proteins together from the amino acids building blocks.
    • -translates nucleic code into protein code
  7. cytoplasm
    • -all material inside plasma membrane and outside nucleus.
    • -filled with proteins, lipids, nucleotides
  8. cell
    -smallest units that retain all the properties of life.
  9. proteins
    -working machines
  10. lipids
    -membrane building blocks
  11. nucleotides
    -DNA building blocks
  12. metabolic activity
    • - sum of all biochemical reactions that make life possible
    • - mostly occurs in cytoplasm
  13. prokaryotic cells
    • -single celled bacteria and archaea
    • -have no nucleus*
  14. 2 types of cells
    • -prokaryotic
    • -eukaryotic
  15. eukaryotic cells
    • -found in eukaryotes
    • -everything other than bacteria and archaea
    • -have a nucleus*
  16. earliest cells were...
  17. DNA of eukaryotic cells
    -contained within a nucleus
  18. DNA of a prokaryotic cell
    -not enclosed in a nucleus or other structure
  19. features of eukaryotic cells
    • -much bigger than prokaryotic cells
    • -contain organelles, parts in a cell
    • -contain a cytoskeleton
  20. cytoskeleton
    • -network of protein structures that give shape and organization to eukaryotic cells
    • -attached to organelles
  21. nucleus
    • -largest organelle in the cell
    • - 3 parts
    • - has pores but DNA never leaves because it can't
    • -stores DNA
  22. 3 parts of nucleus
    • -nuclear envelop
    • -chromatin
    • -nucleolus
  23. chromatin
    • -complex of proteins with DNA of the cell
    • -arranged in chromosomes
  24. nucleolus
    -where ribosomes are put together