Anthro Quiz 1

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Anthro Quiz 1
2010-09-14 01:32:15
Physical Anthro

Physical anthro vocab.ver
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  1. Anthropology
    The study of humankind in all times and places.
  2. Holistic perspective
    a fundamental principle of anthropology: that the various parts of human culture and biology must be viewed in the broadest possible context in order to understand their interconnections and interdependence.
  3. Culture bound
    Looking at the world and reality based on the assumptions and values of one's own culture.
  4. Applied anthropology
    the use of anthropological knowledge and methods to solve practical problems, often for a specific client.
  5. physical anthropology
    the systematic study of humans as biological organisms; also known as biological anthro.
  6. molecular anthro
    a branch of biological anthro that uses genetic and biochemical techniques to test hypotheses about human evolution, adaption, and variation.
  7. paleoanthro
    the study of the origins and predecessors of the present human species; the study of human evolution.
  8. biocultural
    focusing on the interaction of bio and culture.
  9. primatology
    the study of living and fossil primates.
  10. forensic anthro
    applied subfield of physical anthro that specializes in the identification of human skeletal remains for legal purposes.
  11. cultural anthro
    study of customary patterns in human behavior, thoughts, and feelings. it focuses on humans as culture-producing and culture-reproducing creatures.
  12. culture
    a society's shared and socially transmitted ideas, values, and perceptions, which are used to make sense of experience and generate behavior and are reflected in that behavior.
  13. ethnography
    a detailed description of a particular culture primarily based on fieldwork.
  14. fieldwork
    on location research.
  15. participant observation
    in ethnography, the technique of learning a people's culture through social participation and personal observation within the community being studied, as well as interviews and discussions with individual members of the group over an extended period of time.
  16. ethnology
    the study and analysis of different cultures from a comparative or historical point of view, utilizing ethnographic graphs and developing anthropological theories that help explain why certain important differences or similarities occur among groups.
  17. linguistic anthro
    the study of human languages- looking at their structure, history, and relation to social and cultural contexts.
  18. archaeology
    the study of human cultures through the recovery and analysis of material remains and environmental data.
  19. cultural resource management
    a branch of archaeology tied to government policies for the protection of cultural resources and involving surveying and/or excavating archaeological and historical remains threatened by construction or development.
  20. empirical
    based on observations of the world rather than on intuition or faith.
  21. hypothesis
    a tentative explanation of the relationships between certain phenomena.
  22. theory
    in science, an explanation of natural phenomena supported by a reliable body of data.
  23. primate
    the group of mammals that includes lemurs, lorises, tarsiers, monkeys, apes, and humans.
  24. mammal
    the class of vertebrate animals distinguished by bodies covered with fur, self-regulating temperature, and, in females, milk producing mammary glands.
  25. species
    the smallest working units in the system of classification. among living organisms, species are populations or groups of populations capable of interbreeding, and producing fertile viable offspring.
  26. genus
    in the system of plant and animal classification, a group of like species.
  27. taxonomy
    the science of classification.
  28. notochord
    a rodlike structure of cartilage that, in vertebrates, is replaced by the vertebral column.
  29. natural selection
    the evolutionary process through which factors in the environment exert pressure, favoring some individuals over others to produce the next generation.
  30. gene
    a portion of the DNA molecule containing a sequence of base pairs that is the fundamental physical and functional unit of heredity.
  31. alleles
    alternate forms of a single gene
  32. genome
    the complete structure sequence of DNA for a species.
  33. mitosis
    a kind of cell division that produces new cells having exactly the same number of chromosome pairs, and hence copies of genes, as the parent cell.
  34. meiosis
    a kind of cell division that produces the sex cells, each of which has half the number of chromosomes found in other cells of the organism.
  35. genotype
    the alleles possessed for a particular gene.
  36. phenotype
    the observable characteristics of an organism that may or may not reflect a particular genotype due to the variable expression of dominant and recessive alleles.
  37. population
    in biology, a group of similar individuals that can and do interbreed.
  38. gene pool
    all the genetic variants possessed by members of a population.
  39. evolution
    changes in allele frequencies in populations also known as microevolution.
  40. mutation
    chance alteration of genetic material that produces new variation
  41. genetic drift
    chance fluctuations of allele frequencies in the gene pool of a population.
  42. gene flow
    the introduction of alleles from the gene pool of one population into that of another.
  43. adaption
    a series of beneficial adjustments to the environments.
  44. nocturnal
    active at night and at rest during the day
  45. arboreal
    living in the trees
  46. diurnal
    active during active during the day and at rest at night.
  47. prosimii
    a suborder of the primates that includes lemurs, lorises, and tarsiers.
  48. anthropoidea
    a suborder of the primates that includes New World monkeys, old world monkeys and apes.
  49. strepsirhini
    in the alternate primate taxonomy, the suborder that includes lemurs and lorises without the tarsiers.
  50. haplorhini
    in the alternate primate taxonomy, the suborder that includes: tarsiers, monkeys, apes and humans.
  51. platyrrhini
    a primate infraorder that includes old world monkeys
  52. catarrhini
    a primate infraorder that includes old world monkeys, apes, and humans.
  53. hominoid
    the taxonomic division superfamily within the old world primates that includes gibbons, simians, orangutangs, gorillas, chimps, bonobos, and humans.
  54. hominid
    african hominoid family that includes humans and their ancestors.
  55. hominin
    the taxonomic subfamily or tribe within the primates that includes humans and our ancestors.
  56. dental formula
    the number of each tooth type on one half of each jaw. unlike other mammals, primates possess equal numbers on their upper and lower jaws so the dental formula for the species is a single series of numbers.
  57. sexual dimorphism
    within a single species, differences between males and females in the shape or size of a feature not directly related to reproduction, such as body size or canine tooth shape and size.
  58. binocular vision
    vision with increased depth perception from two eyes set next to eachother allowing their visual fields to overlap.
  59. stereoscopic vision
    complete 3dimensional vision from binocular vision and nerve connections that run from each eye to both sides of the brain, allowing nerve cells to integrate the images derived from each eye.
  60. fovea centralis
    a shallow pit in the retina of the eye that ables an animal to focus on an object while maintaining visual contact with it's surroundings.
  61. ecological niche
    a species' way of life considered in the full context of its environment, including factors like diet, activity, terrain , vegetation, predators, prey and climate.
  62. vertebrate
    an animal with a backbone, including fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals.
  63. cranium
    the braincase of the skull
  64. foramen magnum
    a large opening in the skull through which the spinal cord passes and connects to the brain.
  65. clavicle
    the collarbone connecting the sternum (breastbone) with the scapula (shoulder blade).
  66. suspensory hanging apparatus
    the broad powerful shoulder joints and muscles found in all the hominoids, allowing these large-bodied primates to hang suspended below the tree branches.
  67. scapula
    the shoulder blade
  68. brachiation
    using the arms to move from branch to branch. with the body hanging suspended beneath the arms.
  69. prehensile
    having the ability to grasp.
  70. opposable
    able to bring the thumb or big toe in contact with the tops of the other digits on the same hand or foot in order to grasp objects.
  71. community
    a unit of primate social organization composed of fifty or more individuals who inhabit a large geographic area together.
  72. natal group
    the group or community an animal has inhabited since birth.
  73. home range
    the geographic area within which a group of primates usually moves.
  74. dominance hierarchies
    observed ranking systems in primate societies ordering individuals from high (alpha) to low standing corresponding to predictable behavioral interactions including domination.
  75. grooming
    the ritual cleaning of another animal's coat to remove parasites and other matter.
  76. estrus
    in some primate females, the time of sexual receptivity during which ovulation is visibly displayed.
  77. ovulation
    moment when an egg released from the ovaries into the womb is receptive for fertilization.
  78. monogamous
    mating for life with a single individual of the opposite sex.
  79. affiliative
    tending to promote social cohesion.
  80. altruism
    concern for the welfare of others expressed as increased risk undertaken by individuals for the good of the group.
  81. tool
    an object used to facilitate some task or activity.