Biology Exam 1 Terms

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jax12
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Biology Exam 1 Terms
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2010-09-21 20:56:40
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Biology Exam Terms
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Biology Exam 1 Terms
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  1. cell
    -smallest units that retain all properties of life.
  2. plasma membrane
    -membrane that surrounds the cell and separates it from the outside
  3. DNA
    • -stores all instructions (genes) for making all parts of a cell and new cells
    • -all cells in an organism usually have the same DNA
  4. transcription
    • -copying the gene into a message molecule called RNA
    • -a step of gene expression
  5. translation
    • -creating the protein from the gene's plan via the RNA copy
    • -occurs in cytoplasm
  6. ribosomes
    • -workbenches that put proteins together from amino acid building blocks
    • -located in the cytoplasm
    • -or attached to membranes of organelles (rough ER)
    • -can kill a cell by killing its ribosomes
  7. cytoplasm
    • -all material inside plasma membrane and outside nucleus
    • -contains water, salts, sugars, and organic molecules
    • -filled with: proteins, lipids, nucleotides
  8. metabolic activity
    -sum of all biochemical reactions that make life possible
  9. proteins
    -work performing machines of the cell
  10. lipids
    -membrane building blocks
  11. nucleotides
    -DNA building blocks
  12. 2 types of cells
    • -prokaryotic
    • -eukaryotic
  13. prokaryotic cell
    • -bacteria and archaea
    • -do not have a nucleus
  14. eukaryotic cell
    • -everything besides bacteria and archaea
    • -has a nucleus
  15. DNA of eukaryotes
    -contained in a nucleus
  16. DNA of prokaryotic cells
    -not contained in a nucleus or any other membrane container
  17. earliest cells were which type?
    -prokaryotic
  18. main features of eukaryotic cells
    • -much bigger than prokaryotes
    • -contain organelles
    • -contain a cytoskeleton
  19. organelles
    • -membrane enclosed structures in the cytoplasm
    • -perform different functions in the cell
  20. cytoskeleton
    • -network of protein fibers that give shape to eukaryotic cells
    • -organelles adhere to the skeleton
  21. nucleus
    • -largest organelle in a cell
    • -has pores but DNA can't escape
    • -stores DNA
    • - has 3 parts
  22. 3 parts of a nucleus
    • -nucleolus
    • -chromatin
    • -nuclear envelope
  23. chromatin
    • -the complex of proteins and DNA
    • -arranged in chromosomes
  24. mitosis
    -the splitting and copying of a cell
  25. nucleolus
    -puts together ribosomes
  26. what do the internal membranes do?
    -create specialized internal environments
  27. 2 kinds of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
    • -smooth ER
    • -rough ER
  28. rough ER
    • -robosomes stud the ER
    • -as proteins are made they pass through to the inside of the ER
    • -where all membrane proteins and secreted proteins are made
  29. process of making a protein in rough ER
    • -move inside the compartment
    • -eventually bud to form vesicles (piece of ER that bubbles off)
    • -vesicles caryy the cargo of protein to their ultimate destination
  30. smooth ER
    • -where other molecules are made
    • -cleanses toxins
    • -makes phosopholipids and cholesterol
    • -makes new membranes
  31. enzymes
    -special proteins that catalyze chemical reactions
  32. Golgi apparatus
    • -sorts, finishes, packages
    • -products to be sorted arrive from ER
    • -shipping vesicles bud off the opposite side they were received
    • -UPS of the cell, delivers products to their new destination
  33. lysosomes
    • -digestive compartments
    • -digestive enzymes kept here (for protection)
    • -made in ER sent to Golgi
    • -recycles old and broken cell components
    • -only activates at a specific Ph trigger
  34. vacuoles
    -regulate water supply and storage
  35. central vacuole (plant cells)
    • -specifically regulates water supply and maintains structure of the cell body
    • -may contain poison to be excreted
  36. mitochondria
    • -power houses of the cell
    • -organelle that extracts energy from food we eat
    • -puts energy into ATP
    • -have double membrane
    • -about the size of bacteria
  37. ATP
    • -small molecule like a compressed spring
    • -trasfered everywhere its neded to perform some work
    • -energy currency of the cell
    • -you make and use your weight in ATP everyday
  38. chloroplasts
    • -capture solar energy and store energy in sugar
    • -double membrane system
    • -contains disks of solar receptors (Thylakoid stacks)
  39. cilia and flagella
    • -projections out of plasma membrane
    • - only on eukaryotic cells
    • -made of protein tubes (microtubules)
    • -line tracts of tissue like respiratory tracts etc
  40. prokaryotic cells
    • -size of a mitochondria
    • - simple internal structure
    • - stiff cell wall
    • - cytoplasm is uniform
    • -one circular DNA molecule
    • -lack other organelles
  41. nucleoid
    • - nuclueus without a membrane
    • - stores DNA of a prokaryote
  42. tissue engineering
    - growing cells for skin, bones, teeth, heart, kidney
  43. totipotent
    -can develop into any cell type
  44. pleuripotent
    -can develop into many, many cell types
  45. microscope in vented by _____
    Antony von Leeuwenhoek
  46. viewed cell walls of cork in ____ and coined the term "cell"
    • Robert Hooke in 1665
    • "cell" came from prison cell because it has boundarys
  47. prerequisite for life
    water
  48. earth
    • - moderate temperature
    • - oxygen
    • - water
  49. non-living things are
    • - complex or organized
    • - not both
  50. salt crystals
    -organized and simple
  51. oceans
    - complex and disorganized
  52. living things
    - all living things are highly complex and highly organized
  53. abilities of living things
    • -growth
    • -reproduction
    • - ability to respond to stimuli
    • - use materials and energy
    • - have DNA
  54. why is DNA in every living cell?
    according to evolution, everything living descended from a common ancestor
  55. Creationism
    - the idea that a supernatural being created all life forms by a supernatural act or acts.
  56. evolution
    • - diversity of life and similarities "explained" by it
    • - over long periods of time, organisms change
    • - life has had 4 billion years to collect differences
  57. biodiversity
    - the wealth of species and interrelationships that sustain them.

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