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What is communication?
The process of exchanging information and meaning between or among individuals through a common system of symbols, signs, and behavior.
What is the achievement or task purpose?
To serve on a decision-making or problem-solving group. To get the job done.
What is the maintenance or social purpose?
Feel better about yourself and each other. To develop group morale.
The process of selecting and organizing the message.
What are 4 factors that influence encoding?
Receiver's education level. Experience. Viewpoints. Power status/ relationship to sender
The process of interpreting the message.
Response to a message. Verbal or nonverbal.
List some sources of noise.
Contradicting nonverbal signals. Differences in education & culture. Words not present in receiver's vocabulary. Ambiguous, nonspecific ideas. Distractions. Noisy environment. Receiver unreceptive to new ideas. Receiver pre-judges topic. Complications cause by the communication channel.
List advantages of two way, face to face.
Instant feedback, nonverbal signals, personal connection. Best channel for conveying sensitive or unpleasant news.
List examples of two way, NOT face to face
telephone, conversation, online chats, instant messaging, texting
List advantages of two way, NOT face to face
Instant feedback, real-time conversation
What is a disadvantage of two way, NOT face to face?
Lacks nonverbal elements, so verbal messages must be especially clear.
What is an advantage of one way, NOT face to face?
Message considered more permanent and official
What are some disadvantages of one way, NOT face to face?
Lacks both nonverbal elements and instant feedback. Confusion must be anticipated and prevented.
Define intrapersonal communication.
Communicating with yourself. NOT considered true communication.
Define interpersonal communication.
Communication between two people. Goals: accomplish task, maintenance function.
Define group communication.
Communication among 2 or more people. Goals: achieving output greater than individual efforts could produce
Define organizational communication.
Groups working together to achieve large tasks.
Define public communication.
The organization communicating externally to its constituents. Advertising, corporate website.
Define formal channels.
Rules procedure. Created by management to control individual and group behavior
Define informal channels.
Emerge as people interact within a formal system to create a satisfying environment.
List advantages of workplace gossip.
Helps build office friendships. Forms a sense of connection in work teams. Helps new hires learn about the corporate culture.
List disadvantages of workplace gossip.
Lawsuits. Career damage. Productivity drain
List 7 barriers to intercultural communication.
- Interpretation of time.
- Personal space requirements.
- Body language.
- Translation limitations.
- Lack of language training.
List Hofstede's 5 cultural dimensions.
- individualism v. collectivism
- Power distance
- Masculinity v femininity
- Uncertainty avoidance
- Long term v short term orientation
Define power distance
The extent to which people expect and accept that power is unequally distributed within a country or organizaiton
Define uncertainty avoidance.
How comfortable people are facing risk and uncertainty.
List 3 impacts of technology
Collect and organize data better. Craft clearer and more effective messages. Overcome distance issues.