Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 3

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dekupar
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34681
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Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 3
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2010-09-15 12:36:35
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Anatomy Physiology Chapter
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Cell structure and parts
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  1. Compostion of membrane
    • 90% lipids
    • -75% phospholipids
    • -20% cholesterol of the lipids
    • -2% globular proteins
  2. Phospholipids in the cell membrane
    • 75% of lipid content
    • Polar molecules form a bilayer in water
    • Hydrophilic heads face out and
    • Hydrophobic lipid regions are protected on the inside
  3. Cholesterol in the cell membrane
    • Structural support
    • 20% of the lipid
  4. Protein in the cell membrane
    proteins are suspended in the bilayer
  5. Protein functions
    • act as channels (which are hydrophilic) or pores
    • act as receptors for hormones; ex. insulin
    • exzymes that are bound to the membrane
    • cell identity marker; you tissue type; glycoprotein
    • points of attachment for cell to cell
  6. Glycocalyx
    carbohydrate extensions of the macromolecules; essential to chemical identification of you
  7. Function of membrane
    • 1.Selectively permeable barrier: controls what comes in and goes out
    • 2.Communication with other cells (important in immune system)
    • 3.Senses cell surroundings
  8. Composition/ design of Nucleus
    double membrane with pores which regulates what enters or leaves the nucleus
  9. Location of the Nucleus
    can be in the center of the cell
  10. Function of the Nucleus
    houses the DNA and RNA; genes
  11. Ribosomal RNA composition/design
    proteins and RNA in two sub units
  12. Location of Ribosomal RNA
    either attached to endoplasmic reticulum or free in cytoplasm
  13. Function of Ribosomal RNA
    site of protein synthesis
  14. Compostition/design of Endoplasmic reticulum
    phospholipid membrane made into numerous channels and tunnels
  15. Location of Endoplasmic reticulum
    • throughtout the cell interior
    • connects the nuclear membrane to the interior of cell membrane
  16. Function of endoplasmic reticulum
    • intracellular communication
    • 1.transports compounds around cell
    • 2.site of lipid formation
    • 3.location for some RNA so also site of protein synthesis
  17. Composition/design of the Golgi complex and vesicles
    • phospholipid bilayer
    • folds into many layers
    • vesicles pinch off

    -packaging and distrubuting
  18. Location of Golgi complex
    close to ER to receive materials for processing
  19. Function of Golgi Complex
    packaging and distibution center; puts finishing touches on macromolecules
  20. Composition/design of Lysosomes
    tiny packages made of membrane that contain digestive enzymes

    -in WBC it breaks down bad things
  21. Location of lysosomes
    throughout the cell;especially in WBC's
  22. Function of Lysosomes
    break down materials; destory bacteria; self destuction of cell
  23. All interinal membranes are made of what?
    phospolipid membrane
  24. Mitochondria composition/design
    double membrane, highly folded inner membrane; gives alot of service area
  25. Location of mitochondria
    throughout the cell
  26. Function of mitochondria
    to house the location of the ATP, Krebs cycle, and ETS
  27. Composition/design of cytoskeleton
    • microtubules/microfilaments
    • support, organization
    • fibrous proteins
  28. Location of cytoskeleton
    throughout the cell
  29. examples of cytoskeleton
    • spindles used during mitosis
    • myofilaments for muscle cell contraction
  30. Simple diffusion
    • movement of "x" from a region of high concentration to a region of lower concentration
    • 1.movement is passive
    • 2.movement follows the concentration gradient
  31. Which compounds will freely diffuse across the cell membrane?
    • 1.water
    • 2.gases:oxygen and carbon dioxide
    • 3.small nitrogenous waste: ammonia
    • 4.Ions such as potassium and sodium
  32. What factors affect the rate of diffusion?
    • 1.Degree or steepness of concentration gradient- rate of diffusion debends on the greatness of differences
    • 2.size of molecule- smaller molecules move faster
    • 3.temperature
    • 4.surface area
    • 5.permeability:ability of the chemical to find a way through the membrane
  33. Osmosis
    movement of water from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration
  34. Isotonic
    same solute concentration in two areas
  35. Hypertonic
    region has more solutes (thus less water) than another region
  36. Hypotonic
    region has less solutes (thus more water) than another
  37. Pure water is what in comparitive terms?
    hypotonic

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