Cog Psych Test 1

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afdrummond
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Cog Psych Test 1
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2010-09-14 18:49:04
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psychology cognition
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Vocabulary etc for PSY 3116 Test 1
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  1. alerting attention network
    In the cerebral cortex, the system responsible for sensitivity and alertness to new stimuli; it also keeps a person alert & vigilant for long periods of time.
  2. ambiguous figure-ground relationship
    In gestalt psychology, the situation in which the figure and the ground reverse from time to time, so that the figure becomes the ground and then becomes the figure again.
  3. artificial intelligence (AI)
    The branch of computer science that explores human cognitive processes by creating computer models that accomplish the same tasks that humans do.
  4. Atkinson-Shiffrin model
    The proposal that memory can be understood as a sequence of discrete steps, in which information is transferred from one cognitive storage area to another.
  5. attention
    A concentration of mental activity.
  6. behaviorist approach
    A theoretical perspective that focuses only on objective, observable reactions. Behaviorism emphasizes the environmental stimuli that determine behavior.
  7. binding problem
    A problem in human vision that stems from the fact that important features of an object (such as shape & color) are not respresented as a unified whole by the visual system.
  8. blindsight
    The condition in which an individual with a damaged visual cortex claims not to be able to see an object, bet can accurately report some characteristics of that object
  9. bottleneck theories
    The theories of attention that propose that a narrow passageway in human information processing can limit the quantity of imformation to which people can pay attention. When one message is flowing through the bottleneck, other messages must be left behind.
  10. bottom-up processing
    The kind of cognitive processing that emphasizes the importance of information from the stimuli registered on sensory receptors.
  11. brain lesions
    The destruction of brain tissue caused by strokes, tumors, or accidents
  12. categorical perception
    A phenomenon in which people report hearing a clear-cut phoneme (e.g., a clear cut "b" or a clear cut "p"), even though they actually heard a sound halfway between two speech sounds (e.g., halfway between "b" and "p").
  13. cerebral cortex
    The outer layer of the brain that is primarily responsible for cognitive processes.
  14. change blindness
    The inability to detect change in an object of a scene.
  15. coarticulation
    The variability in phoneme pronunciation that occurs because the shape of the mouth is influenced by the previous phoneme and the following phoneme.
  16. cocktail party effect
    The situation in which, when paying close attention to one conversation, a person can often notice if his or her name is mentioned in a nearby conversation.
  17. cognition
    Mental activities involving the acquisition, storage, transformation, and use of knowledge.
  18. cognitive approach
    A theoretical orientation that emphasizes people's knowledge & their mental processes.
  19. cognitive neuroscience
    The field that examines how cognitive processes can be explained by the structure and function of the brain.
  20. cognitive psychology
    (1) a synonym for cognition. (2) The cognitive approach to psychology; a theoretical approach that emphasizes people's knowledge and their mental processes.
  21. cognitive science
    An interdisciplinary field that examines questions about the mind. Cognitive science includes the disciplines of cognitive psychology, neuroscience, artificial intelligence, philosophy, linguistics, anthropology, sociology, and economics.
  22. compulsion
    Repetitive behaviors that are designed to reduce the anxiety produced by obsessive thoughts or images.
  23. computer metaphor
    The persopective that cognitive processes work like a computer-- in other words, like a complex, multipurpose machine that processes information quickly and accurately.
  24. computer simulation
    A computer system that resembles human performance on a specific cognitive task. Also called computer modeling.
  25. connectionism
    The model proposing that cogintive processes can be understood in terms of networks that link together beuron-like units, and that many operations can proceed simultaneously rather than one step at a time.. Also known as the parallel distributed processing (PDP) approach.
  26. consciousness
    An awareness of the external world, as well as thoughts and emotions about one's internal world.
  27. dichotic listening
    The experience of listening simultaneously to two different stimuli, one in each ear.
  28. discourse
    Long passages of spoken and written language; language units that are larger than a sentence.
  29. distal stimulus
    In perception, the actual object that is "out there" in the environment-- for example, a cell phone sitting on a desk.
  30. distinctive feature
    A characteristic or component of a visual stimulus.
  31. distributed attention
    The kind of perceptual processing that allows people to register features automatically, using parallel processing and registering all features simultaneously. Roughly equivalent to automatic processing, this processing is relatively effortless.
  32. divided-attention tasks
    Tasks in which people must attend to two or more simultaneous messages, responding to each appropriately.
  33. ecological validity
    A principle stating that the conditions in which research is conducted should be similar to the natural setting to which the results will be applied.
  34. emotional Stroop task
    In clinical psychology, a technique in which people are instructed to look at a list of words (related to a possible psychological disorder) and name the color of ink for each word.
  35. empirical evidence
    Scientific evidence obtained by careful observation and experimentation.
  36. event-related potential (ERP) technique
    A neuroscience techniqued that records the small, brief fluctuations in the brain's electricial activity, in response to a stimulus.
  37. executive attention network
    In the cerebral cortex, the system handling the kind of attention used when a task features conflict (e.g., on the Stroop test)
  38. feature-analysis theories
    In perception, the object recognition theories proposing that a visual stimulus is composed of a small number of characteristics, each of which is called a distinctive feature.
  39. feature-integration theory
    A theory of attention proposing that people sometimes look at a scene using distributed attention, with all parts of the scene processed simultaneously; on other occasions, they used focused attention, with each item in the scene processed one at a time.
  40. figure
    In gestalt psychology, when two areas share a common boundary, the figure has a distinct shape with clearly defined edges. In contrast, the ground forms the background.
  41. fixations
    The period between saccadic movements (about 50 milliseconds) in which the visual system acquires the information that is useful for reading.
  42. fMRI
    See functional magnetic resonance imaging.
  43. focused attention
    In figure-integration theory, the kind of perceptual processing that requires serial processing, in which more complex objects are identified one at a time.
  44. fovea
    In vision, the center of the retina, which has better acuity than other retinal regions.
  45. functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
    A neuroscientific procedure in which a research participant reclines with his or her head surrounded by a large magnet. This magnetic field that is created produces changes on oxygen atoms. A scanning device records these oxygen atoms while the participant performs a cognitive task.
  46. general mechanism approaches
    In psycholinguistics, the proposal that humans use the same neural mechanisms to process both speech sounds and nonspeech sounds, and that speech perception is a learned ability.
  47. geons
    In vision a shortened version of the phrase "geometrical ions." In the recognition-by-components theory, the basic assumption is that a given view of an object can be represented as an arrangement of simple 3-D shapes or geons.
  48. gestalt
    The term for recognition that is based on an overall quality that transcends the individual elements.
  49. gestalt psychology
    The theoretical approach which emphasizes that humans have basic tendencies to organize what they see, and that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts.
  50. ground
    In gestalt psychology, the ground is the region that is behind the figure, forming the background.
  51. holistic
    A term describine recognition based on overall shape and structure, rather than on individual elements.
  52. iconic memory
    The kind of brief memory that allows an image of a visual stimulus to persist for about 200 to 400 milliseconds after the image has disappeared. Also known as visual sensory memory.
  53. illusory conjunction
    An inappropriate combination of features (for example, combining one object's shape with a nearby object's color).
  54. illusory contours
    A visual illusion, in which people see edges even though they are not physically present in the stimulus. Also called subjective contours.
  55. imagery
    Mental representations of stimuli that are not physically present.
  56. inattentional blindness
    The inability to notice a new object that appears suddenly and unexpectedly when a person is paying attention to other events in a scene.
  57. information-processing approach
    An approach in cognitive psychology which argues that (1) mental processes can be compared with the operations of a computer, and (2) information progresses through the system in a series of stages, one step at a time.
  58. introspection
    The process of systematically analyzing one's own sensations and reporting them as objectively as possible.
  59. ironic effects of mental control
    The way people's efforts backfire when they attempt to control their consciousness or try to eliminate a particular thought.
  60. long-term memory
    The large-capacity memory that contains one's memory for experiences and information that have accumulated over a lifetime.
  61. McGurk effect
    A phenomenon in which visual information influences speech perception, when individuals integrate both visual and auditory information.
  62. memory
    The process of maintaining information over time.
  63. metacognition
    Knowledge and thoughts about one's own cognitive process, as well as control of those cognitive processes.
  64. neural networks
    The model proposing that cognitive processes can be understood in terms of networks that link together neuron-like units; in addition, many operations can proceed simultaneously rather than one step at a time. Also known as the parallel distributed processing (PDP) approach.
  65. neuron
    The basic cell in the nervous system.
  66. object permanence
    The knowledge that an object exists, even when it is temporarily out of sight.
  67. object recognition
    The process of identifying a complex arrangement of sensory stimuli.
  68. obsession
    A persistent thought or image that is intrusive or inappropriate, causing extreme anxiety.
  69. obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
    A psychological disorder characterized by recurrent obsessions or compulsions that are recognized as excessive, uncontrollable, and time consuming.
  70. operational definition
    A precise definition that specifies exactly how researchers will measure a concept.
  71. orienting attention network
    In the cerebral cortex, the system responsible for the kind of attention required for visual search, in which a person must shift attention around to various spatial locations.
  72. parallel distributed processing (PDP) approach
    The model proposing that cognitive processes can be understood in terms of networkd that link together neuron-like unity; the model states that many operations proceed simultaneously, rather than one at a time. Also known as connectionism and neural networks.
  73. parallel processing
    A type of cognitive processing in which a person can handle many signals at the same time, as opposed to serial processing.
  74. pattern recognition
    The process fo identifying a complex arrangement of sensory stimuli.
  75. perception
    The use of previous knowledge to gather and interpret the stimuli registered by the senses.
  76. perceptual span
    In reading, the number of letters and spaces that can be perceived during a visual fixation.
  77. phobic disorder
    An excessive fear of a specific object.
  78. phoneme
    The basic unit of spoken language.
  79. phonemic restoration
    In auditory perception, the phenomenon in which people fill in sounds that are missing by using context as a cue.
  80. phonetic module
    A hypothetical special-puropse neural mechanism in humans that specifically facilitates speech perception, rather than other kinds of auditory perception. Also known as speech module.
  81. positron emission tomography (PET scan)
    A procedure in which researchers measure blood flow by injecting the participant with a radioactive chemical just before the participant performs a cognitive task.
  82. primary visual cortex
    The portion of the cerebral cortex that is concerned with basic processing of visual stimuli. Located in the occipital lobe of the brain.
  83. prosopagnosia
    A condition in which people cannot recognize human faces visually, though they perceive other objects relatively normally.
  84. proximal stimulus
    In perception, the information registered on one's sensory receptors (for example, the image on the retina created by the cell phone sitting on the desk).
  85. pure AI
    The branch of computer science that seeks to design a program that will accomplish a task as efficiently as possible.
  86. recency effect
    In a serial-position curve, the enhanced accuracy for the final items in a series of stimuli, which presumably occurs because the items are still in working memory.
  87. recognition-by-components theory
    In perception, the proposal that a specific view of an object can be represented as an arrangement of simple 3-D shapes called geons. Also known as structural theory.
  88. regressions
    In reading, the eye movements in which the eye returns to earlier material in the sentence.
  89. retina
    In vision, the inside back portion of the eye, containing millions of different kinds of neurons that register and transmit visual information from the outside world.
  90. saccadic eye movement
    In reading, the kind of eye movement that brings the center of the retina into position over the words to be read.
  91. schema
    Generali8zed knowledge or expectation, which is distilled from past experiences with an event, an object, or a person. Schemas frequently guide memory recall.
  92. schizophrenia
    A psychological disorder characterized by severely disordered thoughts. People with schizophrenia do not show intense emotion, and they may have hallucinations.
  93. selective-attention task
    A task in which people must respond selectively to certain kinds of information while ignoring other information.
  94. semantic memory
    A person's factual, organized knowledge about the world, including knowledge about word meanings.
  95. sensory memory
    A large-capacity storage system that records and briefly stores information from each of the senses with reasonable accuracy.
  96. serial processing
    A type of cognitive processing in which only one item is handled at a given time, and one step must be completed before proceeding to the next step.
  97. shadow
    In attention research, the process of repeating a message heard in one ear during a dichotic listening task.
  98. short-term memory
    The kind of memory that contains only the small amount of information that a person is actively using. At present, most people prefer the term, "working memory."
  99. single-cell recording technique
    A neuroscience technique in which researchers study the characteristics of an animal's brain and nervous system by inserting an electrode next to a single neuron.
  100. social cognitive neuroscience
    The field that uses neuroscience to examine how cognitive processes are used in one's interactions with other people.
  101. special mechanism approach
    In psycholinguistics, an approach stating that humans are born with a specialized cognitive device for decoding speech stimuli. As a result, people process speech sounds more quickly and accurately than other auditory stimuli. Also known as the speech-is-special approach.
  102. speech-is-special approach
    In psycholinguistics, an approach stating that humans are born with a specialized cognitive device for decoding speech stimuli. As a result, people process speech sounds more quickly and accurately than other auditory stimuli. Also known as the special mechanism approach.
  103. speech module
    A hypothetical special-purpose neural mechanism in humans that specifically facilitates speech perception, rather than other kinds of auditory perception. Also known as phonetic module.
  104. speech perception
    In hearing, the translation of sound vibrations into a sequence of sounds that the listener perceives to be speech.
  105. Stroop effect
    The observation that people take much longer to name the color of a stimulus when it is used in printing an incongruent word than when it appears as a solid patch of color.
  106. structural theory
    In perception, the proposal that a given view of an object can be represented as an arrangement of simple 3-D shapes called geons. Also known as the recognition-by-components theory.
  107. subjective contours
    A visual illusion, in which people see edges even though they are not physically present in the stimulus. Also called illusory contours.
  108. template
    A specific perceptual pattern stored in memory.
  109. template-matching theory
    In pattern recognition, the theory stating that a stimulus is compared with a set of templates, or specific patterns stored in memory. After comparison, the person notes the template that matches the most closely.
  110. Theme 1
    Cognitive processes are active, rather than passive.
  111. Theme 2
    Cognitive processes are remarkably efficient and accurate.
  112. Theme 3
    Cognitive processes handle positive information better than negative information.
  113. Theme 4
    Cognitive processes are interrelated with one another; they do not operate in isolation.
  114. Theme 5
    Many cognitive processes rely on both bottom-up and top-down processing.
  115. top-down processing
    The kind of cognitive processing that emphasizes the influence of concepts, expectations, and memory.
  116. unilateral neglect
    In perception, a spatial deficit for one half of the visual field.
  117. viewer-centered approach
    In perception, the model proposing that a small number of views of 3-D objects are stored in memory, rather than just one view.
  118. word superiority effect
    In perception, a phenomenon in which a single letter can be identified more accurately and more rapidly when it apears in a meaningful word than when it appears by itself or in a meaningless string of unrelated letters.
  119. working memory
    The brief, immediate memory for material that is currently being processed; a portion of working memory also coordinates ongoing mental activities. Working memory was previously called short-term memory.

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