A&P Chapter 3 - Cells

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tiffanydawnn
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34690
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A&P Chapter 3 - Cells
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2010-09-14 16:06:41
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Chapter Cells
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A&P Chapter 3 - Cells
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  1. cell
    • basic unit of structure/function in the body
    • characteristics:
    • movement
    • respond to stimuli
    • carry on metabolism
    • grow and reproduce (most)
  2. cell membrane
    • outer structure that separates cell contents from external environment
    • microthin yet bi-layered
    • composed mostly of phospholipid and protein
  3. phospholipids
    • fatty phosphorus
    • heads: polar (react w/ H2O)
    • tails - nonpolar (do not react w/H2O)
  4. peripheral proteins
    • on outside attached to head
    • help anchor cell in position
  5. integral proteins
    • inside among tails
    • contain channels and pores that allow substances to enter and exit the cell
  6. glycocalyx
    short chains of sticky carbs that hold cells together
  7. functions of the cell membrane
    • 1. separate inside of cell from outside environment
    • 2. receptor site for hormones and enzymes
    • 3. allow substances to enter/exit (selective permeability)
  8. permeability factors
    • 1. size of molecule
    • 2. charge of molecule (opposites attract)
    • 3. fat solubility (must be fat soluble)
    • 4. # of integral proteins available (carrier molecules)
  9. passive transport
    • substance moves from greater concentration to lesser concentration
    • cell uses no energy
    • occurs with or without membrane
    • substance moves down concentration gradient
  10. diffusion
    solute moves from greater concentration to lesser concentration (aka down the gradient)
  11. rate of diffusion
    increase in steepness of gradient or temperature speeds up rate of diffusion
  12. osmosis
    • solvent (water) moves from greater concentration to lesser concentration
    • requires a membrane
  13. tonicity
    solution's relationship to living body cells
  14. isotonic
    • no net movement of H2O
    • cell shape will not change
  15. hypertonic
    • H2O leaves cell (shrinks)
    • cell crenates
    • used to reduce fluid in body cells
  16. hypotonic
    • H2O enters cell
    • cell swells - could lyse
    • used for dehydration
  17. filtration
    • solute/solvent forced across a membrane by pressure
    • seen in the kidneys and urinary system (forced by BP)
  18. facilitated diffusion
    • large molecular substance trying to cross membrane attaches to integral proteins
    • glucose
  19. active transport
    • substances move from lesser concentration to greater concentration
    • move up a gradient or against a charge
    • cell uses lots of energy
    • six processes
  20. phagocytosis
    • cell ingests solid particles (bacteria)
    • "cell eating"
  21. pinocytosis
    • cell ingests liquids
    • "cell drinking"
  22. symporters
    • 2 substances cross membrane at the same time
    • dependent on each other
  23. antiporters
    • 2 substances cross in opposite directions at the same time
    • mostly urinary
  24. receptor mediated endocytosis
    the way ligands cross a membrane
  25. ligand
    • any substance found outside a membrane in very small quantities
    • (ex. vitamins and minerals)
  26. Na+ - K+ pump
    • moves unequal amounts of Na+ and K+ in and out of cell
    • nervous and urinary systems
  27. cytoplasm
    • fluid between nucleus and cell membrane
    • contains nutrients and all organelles
  28. flagella
    • tails used for movement
    • found only on sperm cells
  29. cilia
    • microscopic hairs found on surface of cells (respiratory)
    • moves substances along cell surface
  30. cytoskeleton
    • holds cell contents together/gives shape
    • microfilaments: threadlike structures that hold cell contents together
    • microtubules: tiny proteins that give cell shape
    • intermediate filaments:
    • --collagen: strength
    • --elastin: elasticity
    • --keratin: waterproofs
  31. ribosome
    makes protein
  32. endoplasmic reticulum
    • series of channels, cavities, and canals that store and transport chemicals
    • rough ER: has ribosomes attached
    • smooth ER: no ribosomes attached
  33. golgi body
    • packages proteins and sends to other parts of cell
    • makes lysosomes
  34. lysosomes
    contain digestive enzymes that kill bacteria
  35. peroxisomes
    destroy hydrogen peroxide (byproduct of metabolism)
  36. mitochondria
    • powerhouse of the cell
    • makes ATP
  37. inclusions
    byproducts of cell metabolism
  38. centrosome
    • forms flagella, cilia and mitotic spindle
    • always near nucleus
  39. nucleus
    • largest organelle
    • always oval
    • surrounded by nuclear envelope (double membrane)
    • 3 parts: karolymph, nucleoli, chromosomes
  40. karolymph
    nuclear cytoplasm
  41. nucleoli
    makes RNA
  42. chromosomes
    genetic material
  43. cell division
    • process by which body cells reproduce
    • nucleus and cytoplasm both divide
  44. mitosis
    division of the nucleus
  45. cytokinesis
    division of the cytoplasm
  46. somatic cells
    • forms all body structures other than sex cells
    • divide by mitosis / cytokinesis
  47. gametes
    • sex cells
    • divide by meiosis
  48. cell cycle
    • all events a cell goes through from production until division is complete
    • five phases (IPMAT)
  49. interphase
    • first stage
    • cell gets ready to divide
    • DNA and X's replicate
    • nutrients produced
    • X's not visible (chromatin material is jelly like)
    • nuclear membrane in tact
    • 3 stages:
    • --G1 - growth - nutrients produced
    • --S - synthesis - DNA replicates - must continue to divide once this stage is reached
    • --G2 - growth
  50. prophase
    • second stage
    • nuclear membrane breaks down
    • X's visible
    • mitotic spindle forms
  51. metaphase
    • nuclear membrane gone
    • centromeres line up along the middle
  52. anaphase
    • centromeres split
    • pairs of chromatids move to poles
    • cytokinesis begins
  53. telophase
    • clevage furrow is complete
    • exact opposite of prophase
    • 2 identical cells

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