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Where did the art of Rhetoric originate?
Art of Rhetoric mid-400 BC in Syracuse, Sicily-Sicilians overthrew regime and formed democratic society- first task bring leagal calims against tyrannical government
What was the focus of early retoric
- Corax and Tisias-first theorists and teachers of rhetoric- taught citizens how to present claims forcefully and effectively.
- Invention, Organization, Style, Memory, and Delivery
Where did Comm. Studies departments originate?
- In liberal education in Ivy League schools
- 1800's, early 1900's, part of English department
What was the focus of early departments?
- Emphasis on teaching
- Focus Public speaking
How has the focus in communications studies changed?
- Emphasis is broader, from public speaking to speech to communication
- Includes analysis and research, different forms of communication
Communication according to Woods is...
A systemic process in which people interact with and through symbols tovcreate & interpret meaning.
Describe the SYSTEMIC element of communication
- a system made up of interrelated parts, can be broken•down and analyzed
Describe the PROCESS element of communication
ongoing and dynamic, always in motion, continually•changing
What is MEANING
socially mediated mental representation, what something•signifies to us, we communicate meaning through symbols; content &relationship level meaning
Explain the Linear Models of Communication
- One-way, one person acting on another person
- Too simplistic
Interactive Model of Communication
- Added feedback (response to a message, intentional or unintentional, verbalor non-verbal) & personal fields of experience
- Communication as a sequential process
Transactional Model of Communication
- Both parties are communicators, participating equally & simultaneously
- Shows communication changing over time
- Within systems or contexts (physical, historical, cultural, & relational) thatinclude shared systems of communicators & the personal systems of eachcommunicator
3 stages of inquiry, including the 3 types of questions asked by research scholars.
- 1.Ask Questions
- 3 types of Q's asked by research scholars§
- Q's of definition§ Q's of fact§ Q's of value
- 3.Constructing Answers
3 types of scholarship (be able to compare/contrast as well as identify what field of study is appropriate to each)
- 1. Natural Science
- Objective, Depends on standardization of method
- 2. Humanistic
- Subjective Focus on individual &social worlds Does NOT separate knower from known
- 3. Social Sciences
- Objective Uses scientific methodologies "humans" as object of study
What are experimental & non-experimental designs of research? How are they different?
- EXPERIMENTAL controls all variables except for oneo
- NON-EXPERIMENTAL doesn't manipulate variables; choose variables,describe and measure them, & analyze the relationship
What is researcher bias & what can be done about it?
- RESEARCHER BIAS is any intentional or unintentional influence theexperimenter exerts on a subject in an attempt to confirm the hypothesiso
- Solutions: 1) train experimenters better, 2) standardization, and 3) setup "blind research" (where experimenters are unaware of the hypothesis)
How is rhetoric connected to persuasion?
- Makes us suspicious & mistrusting of rhetoric
- Creates interest to learn how to persuade others
ART OF RHETORIC (def.)
the systematic and intentional practice of effective symbolic expression
Purposes of Rhetor
- To persuade
- To achieve clarity through the structured use of symbols
- To create beauty through the aesthetic potential in symbols
- To develop mutual understanding through careful management of meanings
- abstract, arbitrary, and ambiguous representations of other things
- any mark, sign, gesture or sound that communicates meaning basedon
- social agreement
the speaker, person creating or presenting a message
RHETORICAL DISCOURSE/RHETORIC (def.):
the actual speaking, what is created and studied
the systematic presentation of the art of rhetoric, theprinciples of effectiveness, explanations on how rhetoric achieves its goals, anddescriptions of rhetoric's various functions
Characteristics of Rhetorical Discourse
- Adapted to an audience
- Shaped by human motives
- Responsive to a situation
- Addresses contingent issues
Social Functions of Rhetoric
- 1.Ideas are tested
- 2.Advocacy is assisted
- 3.Power is distributed
- 4.Facts are discovered
- 5.Knowledge is shaped
- 6.Builds community
commitments goals desires are purposes that lead to action
a system of belief, or framework for interpreting the world.