Card Set Information
Communication Studies Test one flash cards
Where did the art of Rhetoric originate?
Art of Rhetoric mid-400 BC in Syracuse, Sicily-Sicilians overthrew regime and formed democratic society- first task bring leagal calims against tyrannical government
What was the focus of early retoric
Corax and Tisias-first theorists and teachers of rhetoric- taught citizens how to present claims forcefully and effectively.
Invention, Organization, Style, Memory, and Delivery
Where did Comm. Studies departments originate?
In liberal education in Ivy League schools
1800's, early 1900's, part of English department
What was the focus of early departments?
Emphasis on teaching
Focus Public speaking
How has the focus in communications studies changed?
Emphasis is broader, from public speaking to speech to communication
Includes analysis and research, different forms of communication
Communication according to Woods is...
A systemic process in which people interact with and through symbols tovcreate & interpret meaning.
Describe the SYSTEMIC element of communication
- a system made up of interrelated parts, can be broken•down and analyzed
Describe the PROCESS element of communication
ongoing and dynamic, always in motion, continually•changing
What is MEANING
socially mediated mental representation, what something•signifies to us, we communicate meaning through symbols; content &relationship level meaning
Explain the Linear Models of Communication
One-way, one person acting on another person
Interactive Model of Communication
Added feedback (response to a message, intentional or unintentional, verbalor non-verbal) & personal fields of experience
Communication as a sequential process
Transactional Model of Communication
Both parties are communicators, participating equally & simultaneously
Shows communication changing over time
Within systems or contexts (physical, historical, cultural, & relational) thatinclude shared systems of communicators & the personal systems of eachcommunicator
3 stages of inquiry, including the 3 types of questions asked by research scholars.
3 types of Q's asked by research scholars§
Q's of definition§ Q's of fact§ Q's of value
3 types of scholarship (be able to compare/contrast as well as identify what field of study is appropriate to each)
1. Natural Science
Objective, Depends on standardization of method
Subjective Focus on individual &social worlds Does NOT separate knower from known
3. Social Sciences
Objective Uses scientific methodologies "humans" as object of study
What are experimental & non-experimental designs of research? How are they different?
EXPERIMENTAL controls all variables except for oneo
NON-EXPERIMENTAL doesn't manipulate variables; choose variables,describe and measure them, & analyze the relationship
What is researcher bias & what can be done about it?
RESEARCHER BIAS is any intentional or unintentional influence theexperimenter exerts on a subject in an attempt to confirm the hypothesiso
: 1) train experimenters better, 2) standardization, and 3) setup "blind research" (where experimenters are unaware of the hypothesis)
How is rhetoric connected to persuasion?
Makes us suspicious & mistrusting of rhetoric
Creates interest to learn how to persuade others
ART OF RHETORIC (def.)
the systematic and intentional practice of effective symbolic expression
Purposes of Rhetor
To achieve clarity through the structured use of symbols
To create beauty through the aesthetic potential in symbols
To develop mutual understanding through careful management of meanings
abstract, arbitrary, and ambiguous representations of other things
any mark, sign, gesture or sound that communicates meaning basedon
the speaker, person creating or presenting a message
RHETORICAL DISCOURSE/RHETORIC (def.):
the actual speaking, what is created and studied
the systematic presentation of the art of rhetoric, theprinciples of effectiveness, explanations on how rhetoric achieves its goals, anddescriptions of rhetoric's various functions
Characteristics of Rhetorical Discourse
Adapted to an audience
Shaped by human motives
Responsive to a situation
Addresses contingent issues
Social Functions of Rhetoric
1.Ideas are tested
2.Advocacy is assisted
3.Power is distributed
4.Facts are discovered
5.Knowledge is shaped
commitments goals desires are purposes that lead to action
a system of belief, or framework for interpreting the world.