A&P Chapter 4 - Tissues

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A&P Chapter 4 - Tissues
2010-09-14 18:13:10
Chapter Tissues

A&P Chapter 4 - Tissues
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  1. tissue
    large group of cells that work together to perform a specific function
  2. four groups of tissue
    • epithelial tissue (ET)
    • connective tissue (CT)
    • muscle tissue (MT)
    • nervous tissue (NT)
  3. epithelial tissue
    • covers, lines, forms glands
    • always close together/tightly packed
    • always a free surface (apical) and attached surface (basal)
    • one or many layers
    • avascular
    • little to no nerve supply
    • usually in various stages of mitosis due to wear and tear
    • attached to underlying tissue by cell junctions
  4. basement membrane
    attaches ET to CT on basal surface
  5. cell junctions
    • 3 types
    • tight: cells fused together / impermeable barrier (ex. blood brain barrier)
    • anchoring; allows for stretching (seen in regions of friction)
    • gap: cells connected by hollow cylinders which allow impulses to pass between cells (only found in embryo)
  6. simple ET
    one layer
  7. stratified ET
    many layers
  8. pseudostratified ET
    one layer that looks like many layers
  9. squamous cell
  10. cuboidal cell
    cubed cell
  11. columnar cell
    column or cylinder shaped
  12. transitional
    changes shape due to stretching
  13. simple squamous ET
    • lungs, kidneys, capillaries
    • diffusion, osmosis, filtration
  14. endothelium
    simple squamous ET associated with capillaries and vessels
  15. mesothelium
    simple squamous ET associated with lungs or serous membranes
  16. simple cuboidal ET
    • tubes of the kidneys
    • secretion, absorption
  17. simple columnar ET
    • digestive, respiratory
    • secretion, absorption
    • --may have goblet cells, cilia (respiratory), villi (digestive)
  18. goblet cells
    secrete mucus onto surface of tissues
  19. cilia
    microscopic hairs that move substances along the surface of the tissue
  20. villi
    finger-like projections on the surface of a tissue that increases the surface area of the tissue
  21. stratified squamous ET
    • top layer is flat
    • regions of wear and tear
    • --kertinized (skin)
    • --non-keritinized (body cavities)
    • protection
  22. keratin
    waterproofing protein
  23. transitional ET
    • many layers
    • bladder, ureter
    • stretches
  24. pseudostratified columnar ET
    • upper respiratory tract (upper trachea/lower throat)
    • secretion, absorption
    • always has cilia and goblet cells
  25. gland
    • cell or group of cells that produce a product and secrete it into a duct, into blood, or onto a body surface
    • 2 major types - endocrine and exocrine
  26. endocrine glands
    produce hormones and secrete them into blood
  27. exocrine glands
    • product a product and secret them into a duct or onto a body surface
    • 3 classes of exocrine glands - holocrine, merocrine, apocrine
  28. holocrine glands
    • build up products in the cytoplasm then the cell dies and product is released
    • (ex. sweat, oil)
  29. merocrine glands
    • produce product and release it to outside of cell
    • most common type of gland
  30. apocrine glands
    • accumulate product on top of cell then pinches off to release product (cell repairs itself)
    • (ex. mammary)
  31. membrane
    • combination of 2 or more tissues (usually ET + CT)
    • 4 types of membranes - mucous, serous, synovial, cutaneous
  32. mucous membranes
    lines every body cavity that opens to outside
  33. serous membranes
    • a double membrane with fluid between layers
    • pleura: lungs
    • pericardium: heart
    • peritoneum: all digestive organs
  34. synovial membrane
    • double layered membrane found in all freely movable joints
    • secretes synovial fluid to help lubricate joins
  35. cutaneous membrane
  36. connective tissue (CT)
    • binds, supports, protects, stores fat, immunity
    • most numerous tissue in the body
    • contains many cells, fibers, ground substance
    • more vascular than ET (except for cartilage & tendons)
    • no free surfaces
    • 2 classes - embryonic and adult
  37. ground substance
    large group of chemicals that form the matrix
  38. matrix
    • substance or space that separates cells in CT
    • usually a group of chemicals & fibers
    • support tissue and provide strength
    • 3 types of fibers - collagen, elastin, reticular
  39. collagen
    • gives tissue strength
    • made of protein
    • most numerous fiber in all connective tissue
  40. elastin
    allows tissue to stretch
  41. reticular
    form the stroma of all soft body organs (liver, spleen)
  42. stroma
  43. macrophages
    • kill and remove bacteria
    • comes from monocytes (WBCs)
    • most active phagoctye in the body
  44. fibroblasts
    • secrete & produce matrix, form collagen
    • most numerous of all CT cells
  45. plasma cells
    • produce antibodies that fight infection
    • come from lymphocytes (WBCs)
  46. mast cells
    • produce histamine and heparin
    • always found next to blood vessels
  47. histamine
    chemical that dilates blood vessels and releases chemicals during allergies and inflammation
  48. heparin
    • chemical that thins blood
    • also acts like glue to hold groups of mast cells together
  49. adipocytes
    fat cells
  50. leukocytes
  51. erythrocytes
  52. thrombocytes
  53. osteocytes
    mature bone cells
  54. osteoblasts
    bone building cells
  55. osteoclasts
    bone destroying cells
  56. chondrocytes
    cartilage producing cells
  57. embryonic CT
    only found in embryos
  58. mesenchyme
    embryonic CT that every adult CT forms from
  59. wharton's jelly
    mucous that supports umbilical cord
  60. adipose CT
    • under skin, behind eyes, around heart, liver, kidneys, in yellow bone marrow
    • insulation, support, protection, energy reserve
  61. areolar CT
    • under skin, around organs, vessels, nerves
    • strength, support, elasticity
  62. reticular CT
    • all soft hollow organs (liver, spleen, lymph nodes)
    • framework and shape of organ
  63. dense regular CT
    • ligaments, tendons
    • attachment
  64. dense irregular CT
    • heart valves, dermis, periosteum (bone membrane), perichondrium (cartilage membrane)
    • strength
  65. dense elastic CT
    • lungs, arteries, trachea, penis
    • stretching
  66. fibrocartilage CT
    • vertebral discs, knee joints, symphysis pubis
    • support, fussion
  67. hyaline CT
    • long bones, ribs, bronchial tree, nose, trachea, embryonic skeleton
    • movement, support
  68. elastic cartilage CT
    • external ears, epiglottis
    • support, shape
  69. vascular (blood) CT
    • heart, blood vessels
    • carries nutrients, waste, controls temp, immunity
  70. bone (osseus) CT
    • all bonesmovement
    • blood cell production
  71. compact bone
    • found in shaft of long bone
    • OSTEON
    • lacunae: spaces where bone cells reside
    • lamilla: circles of bone
    • haversian canal: middle
    • canaliculi: tiny channels that allow nerves/vessels through bone

  72. spongy bone
    • found on ends of bone
    • makes bone strong but light in weight
    • made of trabeculae
  73. muscle tissue (CT)
    • skeletal: striated and voluntary
    • smooth: non-striated and involuntary
    • cardiac: striated and involuntary
  74. nervous tissue (NT)
    • neurons (nerve cells) and neuroglia
    • dendrites: impulses to the cell body
    • cell body: organelles/nucleus
    • axon: impulses away from the cell body