Anatomy Lecture 2

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andreabyerly
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Anatomy Lecture 2
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2010-09-26 15:49:39
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Anatomy Lecture Cell Structures
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Anatomy Lecture Unit 3-4. Cell Structures.
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  1. ECF
    • Extracellular
    • fluid: fluid outside cell
    • 5% of your body fluid. Na+: Sodium. Cl-: Chloride. Ca2+: Calcium. HCO3-: Bicarbonate
  2. ICF
    Intracellular fluid: Fluid inside cell: Cytoplasm or Cytosol

    65% of your body fluid. K+: Potassium. Mg2: Magnesium. PO43: Phosphate
  3. Plasma or cell membrane
    around cell

    98% of CM is made of lipids. The other 2% is proteins.
  4. nucleus
    command center of cell: where genetic material is
  5. Nuclear membrane
    around nucleus
  6. Chromatin
    thread like filaments of DNA in nucleus
  7. Nucleolus
    dark staining mass in nucleus where ribosomes are made
  8. Endoplasmic Reticulum: Rough
    continuous with a nuclear membrane. Is covered with ribosomes. RER is where protein is made.
  9. Ribosomes
    are what make proteins
  10. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
    where lipids are made, and to detoxify drugs and alcohol
  11. Golgi Apparatus
    or Golgi Complex. Proteins that ribosomes made go to Golgi Apparatus where they are processed.
  12. Vacuole/Vesicle
    transports material from the Golgi to other parts of the cell or to the cell membrane to be exported.
  13. Lysosome
    tarts out as a vesicle. Contain digestive enzymes. Enzymes are released into cell when cell is to die.
  14. Mitochondria
    powerhouse of the cell. Makes ATP.
  15. Centrioles:
    2 centrioles in every cell. Always perpendicular to each other. play a role in cell division.
  16. Cilia:
    Hair like processes on the surface of the cell, used for sensory or could be motile.
  17. Flagellum
    only found on sperm. Used to help move.
  18. Microfilaments
    give structural support to the cell. Bread to the butter (cell membrane)
  19. Microtubules
    cylinders that radiate out from where the centrioles are. Important in maintaining cell shape and keep organelles in place.
  20. Lipids
    75% Phospholipids. 20% Cholesterol. 5% glycolipid which contribute to glycocalyx (ID tag for cell)
  21. Phospholipid Bilayer:
    Head are Hydrophilic, Legs are hydrophobic.
  22. Proteins
    1. Peripheral 2. Transmembrane
  23. Transmembrane
    expands the entire cell membrane

    • 1) Receptor
    • 2) Enzyme
    • 3) Ion Channel
    • 4) Cell Identity Marker
    • 5) Cell-Adhesion Molecule (CAM):
  24. peripheral
    only on one side.
  25. Receptor:
    accepts chemical signals from substances that cannot directly enter the cell
  26. Enzyme:
    reduce activation energy so chemical processes can occur faster.
  27. Ion Channel:
    Lets water/ dissolved ions pass through the cell membrane.
  28. Cell Identity Marker:
    Glycoproteins. Part of glycocalyx
  29. Cell-Adhesion Molecule (CAM):
    allows cells to stick to each other.
  30. Second Messenger System
    involves a transmembrane protein and a peripheral protein. Most infamous involved cAMP.
  31. cAMP
    • 1) 1st messenger binds to receptor. Linked to a “G” protein: peripheral protein.
    • 2) G-protein is activated by the receptor
    • 3) G-protein binds to CM enzyme called Adenylate Cyclase
    • 4) converts ATP into 2 phosphates and cyclic (sp?) AMP (cAMP) (second messenger)
    • 5) cAMP activates other enzymes in cytoplasm called kinases
    • 6) those enzymes activate other enzymes.
    • 7) Metabolic activity of cell.
  32. Carrier Proteins
    transmembrane proteins that bind solutes and transfer them to the other side of the cell membrane. Example: glucose. Requires no energy.
  33. Sodium Potassium pump
    Most infamous Carrier Proteins that involves energy. Sodium Potassium pump: Na+-K+ Pump/ATPase: 3 sodium out, 2 potassium in. Requires 1ATP.
  34. Membrane Transport
    • the plasma membrane is a barrier and a gateway between the ECF and ICF/Cytoplasm .It is selectively permeable
    • Moving substances across the plasma membrane can be done in two ways: passive transport and active transport
  35. selectively permeable:
    allows some things through but not others.
  36. Passive Transport:
    no energy (ATP) needed. Substances move from areas of high concentration to low concentration (moving with the gradient, or down the gradient).

    • Example:
    • Diffusion:
    • Facilitated Diffusion:
    • Osmosis:
    • Filtration:
  37. Diffusion
    particles move from high to low concentration. CM must be permeable to the substance. Example: Oxygen.
  38. Facilitated Diffusion
    same as above but with the help of a CM carrier protein. Example: Glucose.
  39. Osmosis
    passive diffusion of water from areas of high water/low solute concentration to low water/high solute concentration
  40. Filtration:
    • passive transport. Water/Particles moved by hydrostatic pressure.
    • Example: Coffee filter, Blood capillaries.

    • ◦ Movement of materials
    • between cell rather than through the plasma membrane.
  41. Active Transport
    requires carrier protein and requires energy. Moves substances from low concentration to high concentration. Moves against the concentration gradient.

    ◦ Example: Sodium-Potassium Pump: Compensates for leaky CM. ▪ Prevents cellular swelling and maintains membrane potential.
  42. Endocytosis
    • bringing material into the cell.
    • Phagocytosis & Pinocytosis
  43. Phagocytosis
    “cell eating”
  44. Pinocytosis
    “cell drinking”
  45. Exocytosis
    discharging material from the cell.
  46. Bulk Movement
    • Endocytosis:
    • Exocytosis:
  47. Solute
    substance that is dissolved in a medium (solvent)
  48. Solvent:
    substance (usu liquid) that dissolves a solute
  49. Solution
    mixture of solutes dissolved in a solvent
  50. Osmotic pressure
    the amount of hydrostatic pressure needed to stop osmosis. How strongly a solution draws water in. The more solute, the more the water wants to come in. [generated by solutes]
  51. Isotonic
    concentration of solutes that can't cross the membrane is the same as ICF. [non-permeating solutes] in solution = ICF. Water doesn't move.
  52. Hypotonic
    concentration of solutes that can't cross the membrane is less than the ICF. [non-permeating solutes] in solution < ICF. Water moves into cell. If an animal cell is put in solution, is will be lysed (experiencing lysis) or expand.
  53. lysed
    (experiencing lysis) or expand.
  54. Hypertonic
    concentration of solutes that can't cross the membrane is greater than the ICF. [non-permeating solutes] in solution > ICF. Water moves out of the cell. If an animal cell is put in solution, crenation of the cell, or the cell is crenated (shrivels up).
  55. crenated (shrivels up).
    shrivels up
  56. Edema
    accumulation of excess extracellular fluid.
  57. Dehydration
    loss of water. Amount of solutes stays the same, but the concentration goes up.
  58. Electrolytes
    salts that ionize in water
  59. Found in both ECF and ICF
    H+: Hydrogen. OH-: Hydroxide.
  60. Fluid Movement
    Fluid is continually exchanged between ICF and ECF compartments. Water moves by osmosis or filtration. Osmosis between compartments is determines by solute concentrations in each compartments.
  61. Electrolytes in ECF:
    sodium salts.
  62. Electrolytes in ICF:
    potassium salts.
  63. IV Fluid Therapy
    sometimes necessary in seriously ill patients. To restore/maintain fluid volume, composition, etc. (skipped last of slide)
  64. Normal Saline (NS)
    aka Physiological Saline (PSS). Electrolyte concentration is [0.9% NaCl: sodium chloride]. [Isotonic solution.] Usually only used short-term or dire emergencies. Can cause depletion of other electrolytes, and doesn't like to stay in circulatory system.
  65. Lactated Ringer's Solution
    aka Ringer's solution, LRS. Isotonic solution. Contains multiple electrolytes and lactate (buffer). Frequently used IV fluid.
  66. DNA
  67. Deoxyribonucleic Acid: Contains our
    • genes for heredity and protein synthesis. Located in the nucleus of
    • the cell. DNA is a polymer of many nucleotides (monomer). Arranged in
    • a double helix structure.
  68. Nucleotides
    • 5-Carbon Sugar: DNA- Deoxyribose
    • Phosphate group:

    Nitrogenous base
  69. Nitrogenous base
    • Pyrimidines: 1 C-N ring.
    • Cytosine C and Thymine T

    • Purines: Double rings
    • Guanine G and Adenine A

    • Sequence of Nitrogenous bases is unique
    • for each gene/protein code.
  70. DNA Structure
    • Double Helix. Each strand contains:
    • backbone (sugar/phosphate) and nitrogenous base. Bases face each
    • other inside the helix and form H-bonds
  71. Law of complementary base pairing
    DNA – A:T, G:C. RNA – A:U, G:C.
  72. RNA
    • Ribonucleic Acid. “Go-between”
    • for DNA and protein. Can travel outside of nucleus. Polymer of
    • nucleotides. Single helix aka single stranded.

    • Sugar: Ribose
    • Phosphate
    • Nitrogenous Base: A:Adenine. G:
    • Guanine. U:Uracil. C:Cytosine.
  73. 3 Forms:
    • mRNA. rRNA.
    • tRNA.
  74. DNA Polymerase
    • enzyme that forms a complimentary
    • strand. Pulls free nucleotides that are floating around to make a
    • complementary strand.
  75. Transcription
    • in nucleus. “transcribe” or copy info from DNA to mRNA. mRNA carries info to ribosomes.
    • require energy. ATP

    RNA Polymerase “unzips” DNA double helix. Then uses the template strand of DNA to create RNA out of RNA nucleotides based on the law of complementary base pairs. RNA Polymerase then “re-winds” the DNA double helix. There are specific sequences along DNA that “tells” RNA Polymerase where to start and stop.
  76. Translation
    • In ribosomes (RER, cytoplasm). mRNA is “translated” into proteins.
    • require energy. ATP


    tRNA transfers corresponding AA's from cytoplasm to the ribosome: anticodon on one end, attachment side for AA on the other end). Ribosome adds each AA by peptide bonds to form a protein.
  77. Codon
    sequence of 3 nucleotide bases on mRNA.

    codes for a specific amino acid
  78. Base Triplet
    sequence of 3 nucleotide bases on DNA.
  79. One Start Codon
    AUG, also code for Methionine
  80. Interphase
    • G1
    • S
    • G2
  81. Mitotic Phase
    • Prophase
    • Metaphase
    • Anaphase
    • Telophase
    • Cytokinesis
  82. G1
    First Gap Phase; cell is doing what it is made to do
  83. S
    Synthesis phase: replicating DNA
  84. G2
    Second Gap Phase; double checking DNA and making enzymes to prepare for division
  85. Prophase
    compacting into chromosomes
  86. Metaphase
    chromosome line up in middle of cell
  87. Anaphase
    sister chromatids are separated and one goes to each end of the cell
  88. Telophase
    Chromatids start uncoiling back into chromatin, and nuclei reforms
  89. Cytokinesis
    division of cytoplasm
  90. G0:
    when cell leaves cell cycle for a rest.
  91. What influences cellular homeostasis/rate of cell division?
    Nutrients, growth factors (growth hormone, chemical signals) , DNA (has to have replicated), cytoplasmic volume (must have enough cytoplasm to produce daughter cell), Cellular density “contact inhibition” : no more room to divide.
  92. Benign Tumor
    cancer cells remain in the tissue they formed in
  93. Proto-oncogenes
    in normal cells. Code for proteins that stimulate normal cell division, as directed by outside influences.
  94. Oncogenes
    Mutated proto-oncogenes. Cell division accelerates out of control.
  95. Tumor-suppressor genes
    in normal cells. Code for DNA-repair enzymes to inhibit cancer. If mutated: lost protective effect, can lead to cancer.
  96. Dna Mutations that result in cancer typically:
    take time to accumulate. USU takes 5-10 mutations. Mutations can be from: DNA replication Error, Carcinogens: Environmental cancer-causing agents. Radiation, Chemicals, Viruses, Etc.

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