Anatomy Lecture 2
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- fluid: fluid outside cell
- 5% of your body fluid. Na+: Sodium. Cl-: Chloride. Ca2+: Calcium. HCO3-: Bicarbonate
Intracellular fluid: Fluid inside cell: Cytoplasm or Cytosol
65% of your body fluid. K+: Potassium. Mg2: Magnesium. PO43: Phosphate
Plasma or cell membrane
98% of CM is made of lipids. The other 2% is proteins.
command center of cell: where genetic material is
thread like filaments of DNA in nucleus
dark staining mass in nucleus where ribosomes are made
Endoplasmic Reticulum: Rough
continuous with a nuclear membrane. Is covered with ribosomes. RER is where protein is made.
are what make proteins
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
where lipids are made, and to detoxify drugs and alcohol
or Golgi Complex. Proteins that ribosomes made go to Golgi Apparatus where they are processed.
transports material from the Golgi to other parts of the cell or to the cell membrane to be exported.
tarts out as a vesicle. Contain digestive enzymes. Enzymes are released into cell when cell is to die.
powerhouse of the cell. Makes ATP.
2 centrioles in every cell. Always perpendicular to each other. play a role in cell division.
Hair like processes on the surface of the cell, used for sensory or could be motile.
only found on sperm. Used to help move.
give structural support to the cell. Bread to the butter (cell membrane)
cylinders that radiate out from where the centrioles are. Important in maintaining cell shape and keep organelles in place.
75% Phospholipids. 20% Cholesterol. 5% glycolipid which contribute to glycocalyx (ID tag for cell)
Head are Hydrophilic, Legs are hydrophobic.
1. Peripheral 2. Transmembrane
expands the entire cell membrane
- 1) Receptor
- 2) Enzyme
- 3) Ion Channel
- 4) Cell Identity Marker
- 5) Cell-Adhesion Molecule (CAM):
only on one side.
accepts chemical signals from substances that cannot directly enter the cell
reduce activation energy so chemical processes can occur faster.
Lets water/ dissolved ions pass through the cell membrane.
Cell Identity Marker:
Glycoproteins. Part of glycocalyx
Cell-Adhesion Molecule (CAM):
allows cells to stick to each other.
Second Messenger System
involves a transmembrane protein and a peripheral protein. Most infamous involved cAMP.
- 1) 1st messenger binds to receptor. Linked to a “G” protein: peripheral protein.
- 2) G-protein is activated by the receptor
- 3) G-protein binds to CM enzyme called Adenylate Cyclase
- 4) converts ATP into 2 phosphates and cyclic (sp?) AMP (cAMP) (second messenger)
- 5) cAMP activates other enzymes in cytoplasm called kinases
- 6) those enzymes activate other enzymes.
- 7) Metabolic activity of cell.
transmembrane proteins that bind solutes and transfer them to the other side of the cell membrane. Example: glucose. Requires no energy.
Sodium Potassium pump
Most infamous Carrier Proteins that involves energy. Sodium Potassium pump: Na+-K+ Pump/ATPase: 3 sodium out, 2 potassium in. Requires 1ATP.
- the plasma membrane is a barrier and a gateway between the ECF and ICF/Cytoplasm .It is selectively permeable
- Moving substances across the plasma membrane can be done in two ways: passive transport and active transport
allows some things through but not others.
no energy (ATP) needed. Substances move from areas of high concentration to low concentration (moving with the gradient, or down the gradient).
- Facilitated Diffusion:
particles move from high to low concentration. CM must be permeable to the substance. Example: Oxygen.
same as above but with the help of a CM carrier protein. Example: Glucose.
passive diffusion of water from areas of high water/low solute concentration to low water/high solute concentration
- passive transport. Water/Particles moved by hydrostatic pressure.
- Example: Coffee filter, Blood capillaries.
- ◦ Movement of materials
- between cell rather than through the plasma membrane.
requires carrier protein and requires energy. Moves substances from low concentration to high concentration. Moves against the concentration gradient.
◦ Example: Sodium-Potassium Pump: Compensates for leaky CM. ▪ Prevents cellular swelling and maintains membrane potential.
- bringing material into the cell.
- Phagocytosis & Pinocytosis
discharging material from the cell.
substance that is dissolved in a medium (solvent)
substance (usu liquid) that dissolves a solute
mixture of solutes dissolved in a solvent
the amount of hydrostatic pressure needed to stop osmosis. How strongly a solution draws water in. The more solute, the more the water wants to come in. [generated by solutes]
concentration of solutes that can't cross the membrane is the same as ICF. [non-permeating solutes] in solution = ICF. Water doesn't move.
concentration of solutes that can't cross the membrane is less than the ICF. [non-permeating solutes] in solution < ICF. Water moves into cell. If an animal cell is put in solution, is will be lysed (experiencing lysis) or expand.
(experiencing lysis) or expand.
concentration of solutes that can't cross the membrane is greater than the ICF. [non-permeating solutes] in solution > ICF. Water moves out of the cell. If an animal cell is put in solution, crenation of the cell, or the cell is crenated (shrivels up).
crenated (shrivels up).
accumulation of excess extracellular fluid.
loss of water. Amount of solutes stays the same, but the concentration goes up.
salts that ionize in water
Found in both ECF and ICF
H+: Hydrogen. OH-: Hydroxide.
Fluid is continually exchanged between ICF and ECF compartments. Water moves by osmosis or filtration. Osmosis between compartments is determines by solute concentrations in each compartments.
Electrolytes in ECF:
Electrolytes in ICF:
IV Fluid Therapy
sometimes necessary in seriously ill patients. To restore/maintain fluid volume, composition, etc. (skipped last of slide)
Normal Saline (NS)
aka Physiological Saline (PSS). Electrolyte concentration is [0.9% NaCl: sodium chloride]. [Isotonic solution.] Usually only used short-term or dire emergencies. Can cause depletion of other electrolytes, and doesn't like to stay in circulatory system.
Lactated Ringer's Solution
aka Ringer's solution, LRS. Isotonic solution. Contains multiple electrolytes and lactate (buffer). Frequently used IV fluid.
Deoxyribonucleic Acid: Contains our
- genes for heredity and protein synthesis. Located in the nucleus of
- the cell. DNA is a polymer of many nucleotides (monomer). Arranged in
- a double helix structure.
- 5-Carbon Sugar: DNA- Deoxyribose
- Phosphate group:
- Pyrimidines: 1 C-N ring.
- Cytosine C and Thymine T
- Purines: Double rings
- Guanine G and Adenine A
- Sequence of Nitrogenous bases is unique
- for each gene/protein code.
- Double Helix. Each strand contains:
- backbone (sugar/phosphate) and nitrogenous base. Bases face each
- other inside the helix and form H-bonds
Law of complementary base pairing
DNA – A:T, G:C. RNA – A:U, G:C.
- Ribonucleic Acid. “Go-between”
- for DNA and protein. Can travel outside of nucleus. Polymer of
- nucleotides. Single helix aka single stranded.
- Sugar: Ribose
- Nitrogenous Base: A:Adenine. G:
- Guanine. U:Uracil. C:Cytosine.
- enzyme that forms a complimentary
- strand. Pulls free nucleotides that are floating around to make a
- complementary strand.
- in nucleus. “transcribe” or copy info from DNA to mRNA. mRNA carries info to ribosomes.
- require energy. ATP
RNA Polymerase “unzips” DNA double helix. Then uses the template strand of DNA to create RNA out of RNA nucleotides based on the law of complementary base pairs. RNA Polymerase then “re-winds” the DNA double helix. There are specific sequences along DNA that “tells” RNA Polymerase where to start and stop.
- In ribosomes (RER, cytoplasm). mRNA is “translated” into proteins.
- require energy. ATP
tRNA transfers corresponding AA's from cytoplasm to the ribosome: anticodon on one end, attachment side for AA on the other end). Ribosome adds each AA by peptide bonds to form a protein.
sequence of 3 nucleotide bases on mRNA.
codes for a specific amino acid
sequence of 3 nucleotide bases on DNA.
One Start Codon
AUG, also code for Methionine
First Gap Phase; cell is doing what it is made to do
Synthesis phase: replicating DNA
Second Gap Phase; double checking DNA and making enzymes to prepare for division
compacting into chromosomes
chromosome line up in middle of cell
sister chromatids are separated and one goes to each end of the cell
Chromatids start uncoiling back into chromatin, and nuclei reforms
division of cytoplasm
when cell leaves cell cycle for a rest.
What influences cellular homeostasis/rate of cell division?
Nutrients, growth factors (growth hormone, chemical signals) , DNA (has to have replicated), cytoplasmic volume (must have enough cytoplasm to produce daughter cell), Cellular density “contact inhibition” : no more room to divide.
cancer cells remain in the tissue they formed in
in normal cells. Code for proteins that stimulate normal cell division, as directed by outside influences.
Mutated proto-oncogenes. Cell division accelerates out of control.
in normal cells. Code for DNA-repair enzymes to inhibit cancer. If mutated: lost protective effect, can lead to cancer.
Dna Mutations that result in cancer typically:
take time to accumulate. USU takes 5-10 mutations. Mutations can be from: DNA replication Error, Carcinogens: Environmental cancer-causing agents. Radiation, Chemicals, Viruses, Etc.
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