Biology 1610

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steviealisan
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34748
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Biology 1610
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2010-09-14 20:26:22
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Chapter 1
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  1. Genomics
    study of genomes
  2. cell
    Thestructural, functional and biological unit of all organisms.
  3. plasma membrane
    • The cell’s outer membrane made up
    • of a two layers of phospholipids with
    • embedded proteins
  4. DNA
    • A double-stranded nucleic acid that
    • contains the genetic information for cell growth, division, and function.
  5. Organelle
    a specialized part of a cell having some specificfunction; a cell organ
  6. prokaryotic cell
    cell lacking a true membrane-bound nucleus
  7. eukaryotic cell
    a cell with a true nucleus; a cell with a nuclearmembrane and organelles
  8. Nucleus
    The large, membrane-bounded organelle that contains the genetic material, in the form of multiple linear DNA molecules organized into structures called chromosomes
  9. metabolism-
    • the sum of the physical and chemicalprocesses in an organism by
    • which its material substance isproduced, maintained, and destroyed,
    • and by which energy ismade available
  10. homeostasis
    a state of psychological equilibrium obtainedwhen tension or a drive has been reduced or eliminated.
  11. cilia and flagella
    • hiplike appendages
    • extend from the surface of many
    • types of eukaryotic cell move
    • liquid past the surface of the cell
  12. asexual reproduction
    reproduction, as budding, fission, or spore formation, not involvingthe union of gametes
  13. sexual reproduction
    reproduction involving the union of gametes
  14. adaptations
    a form or structure modified to fit a changed environment
  15. reductionism
    a procedure or theory that reduces complex data or phenomena to simple terms
  16. emergent property
    a novel property that unpredictably comes from a combination of two simpler constituents
  17. atom
    the smallest particle of an element
  18. molecule
    The smallest particle into which an element or a compound can bedivided without changing its chemical and physical properties
  19. tissue
    A large mass of similar cells that make up a part of an organism andperform a specific function.
  20. organ
    A differentiated part of the body that contains cells and tissues a d performs a specific function
  21. organism
    a form of life composed of mutually interdependent parts that maintain various vital processes
  22. population
    the organisms inhabiting a specific location
  23. community
    A group of organisms or populations living and interacting with one another in a particular environment
  24. ecosystem
    An ecological community together with its environment, functioning as a unit.
  25. biosphere
    All the Earth's ecosystems considered as a single, self-sustaining unit.
  26. ecology
    The study of the relationship between organisms and their environments
  27. gene
    A segment of DNA, occupying a specific place on a chromosome,that is the basic unit of heredity
  28. protein
    • Any of a group of complex organic macromolecules that contain carbon,
    • hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually sulfur and are composed of chains of alpha-amino acids. cell
  29. signaling
    part of a complex system of communication thatgoverns basic cellular activities and coordinates cell actions
  30. hormone
    • A substance, usually a peptide or steroid, produced by one tissue and conveyed by the
    • bloodstream to another to effect physiological activity, such as growth or metabolism.
  31. neurotransmitter
    a chemical by which a nerve cell communicates with another nerve cell or with a muscle
  32. systematic
    of or relating to the taxonomicclassification of organisms
  33. taxonomy
    the science dealing with the description,identification, naming, and classification of organisms
  34. species
    A group of organisms having many characteristics in common and ranking below a genus
  35. genus
    the usual major subdivision of a family or subfamily in the classification of organisms, usually consisting of more than one species.
  36. Binomial
    a biological species name consisting of two terms
  37. species epithet
    second word of a species Name (eg. Sapien from the species Homo Sapien)
  38. family
    A group of organisms ranking above a genus and below an order. End in -ae
  39. order
    A group of organisms ranking above a family and below a class
  40. .Class
    a group, set, or kind marked by common attributes or a common attribute
  41. phylum-
    the primary subdivision of a taxonomic kingdom,grouping together all classes of organisms that have thesame body plan
  42. kingdom
    The highest classification into which living organisms are grouped inLinnean taxonomy, ranking above a phylum.
  43. Genome
    Complete set of Genes in an organism
  44. domain-\
    • A division of organisms that ranks above a kingdom insystems of classification that are based on shared similaritiesin DNA
    • sequences rather than shared structural similarities. In these systems, there are three domains: the archaea, the bacteria, and the eukaryotes
  45. Taxon
    A taxonomic category or group, such as a phylum, order, family,genus, or species.
  46. Eubacteria
    spherical or rod shaped bacteria of the order Eubacteriales,characterized by simple, undifferentiated cells with rigid walls; truebacteria.
  47. Archaea
    • Any of a group of microorganisms that resemble bacteria but are different from them in certain aspects
    • of their chemical structure,such as the composition of their cell walls.
  48. Archaebacteria
    a group of microorganisms now regardedas members of the Archaea
  49. Animalia
    taxonomic kingdom comprising all living or extinct animals
  50. Fungi
    Any of a wide variety of organisms that reproduce by spores,including the mushrooms, molds, yeasts, and mildews.
  51. Plantae
    the taxonomic kingdom comprising all plants.
  52. Protista
    a taxonomic kingdom comprising the protists
  53. evolution
    The process by which species of organisms arise from earlierlife forms and undergo change over time through natural selection
  54. natural selection
    The process by which organisms that are better suited to their environment than others produce more offspring.
  55. mutation
    The act or process of being altered or changed
  56. gene pool
    The collective genetic information contained within a population of sexually reproducing organisms
  57. cellular respiration
    The series of metabolic processes by which living cells produce energy through the oxidation of organic substances
  58. producer
    An autotrophic organism that serves as a source of food for otherorganisms in a food chain
  59. autotroph
    An organism that manufactures its own food from inorganicsubstances, such as carbon dioxide and ammonia.
  60. photosynthesis
    The process in green plants and certain other organisms by whichcarbohydrates are synthesized from carbon dioxide and water usinglight as an energy source.
  61. consumer
    A heterotrophic organism that feeds on other organisms in a foodchain.
  62. heterotroph
    An organism that cannot synthesize its own food and is dependent upon complex organic substances for nutrition.
  63. decomposer
    an organism, usually a bacterium or fungus, that breaks down the cells of dead plants and animals into simpler substances.
  64. inductive reasoning
    reasoning from detailed facts to general principles
  65. experimental group
    A group of subjects that are exposed to the variable of a control experiment.
  66. control group
    any group used as a control in a statistical experiment
  67. theory
    A set of statements or principles devised to explain a group offacts or phenomena

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