Chem Ch 3.txt

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Chem Ch 3.txt
2010-09-14 19:31:17
Chemistry Test

Chem Ch 3
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  1. Periodic Law
    List all elements with increasing atomic #
  2. Vertical Columns
    similar chemical/physical reactions & properties
  3. electronic structure
    shorthand way to describe the energy of electrons in atoms
  4. Parameters of Energy Descriptive tools
    main levels; sub levels; orientations
  5. main levels
    numbered 1,2,3,4...
  6. sub levels
    lettered s, p, d, f...
  7. s sublevel
    • 1 orientation (sphere)
    • holds 2e
  8. p sublevel
    • 3 orientations (propeller)
    • holds 6e
  9. d sublevel
    • 5 orientations
    • holds 10e
  10. f sublevel
    7 orientations
  11. spin
    the way electrons set off a magnetic charge and diff values of energy
  12. electronic configuration
    lists energies of electrons as increasing lowest to highest
  13. electronic configuration exception
    • 4s2 is written before 3d
    • ex: Fe= 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d6
  14. Row VIII A
    • more stable with filled s & p levels; don't react to other chemicals
    • can be used to write electronic configuration
  15. valence electrons
    electrons in the outermost (highest #) main level in s & p sublevels only (not used on VIIIA)
  16. representative elements
    elements in the s & p blocks
  17. transition elements
    elements in the d block
  18. groups
    (or families) the vertical columns
  19. periods
    the horizontal rows
  20. alkali metals
    group I A (excluding H)
  21. alkaline Earth metals
    Group II A
  22. halogens
    Group VII A
  23. Noble (or Rare) Gases
    Group VIII A
  24. Size of Atoms on Periodic Chart
    down a group it increases; across a period it decreases
  25. ionization energy
    energy needed to remove electrons from an atom
  26. 1st ionization energy (IE)
    remove the last electron added to the atom
  27. 1st I.E. on periodic chart
    up a group it increases; across a period it increases
  28. chemical properties of metal vs nonmetal
    metal loses e's when they react; nonmetals gain e's when they react
  29. metallic character on periodic chart
    up a group it decreases; across a period it decreases