Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 2 and 26
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All the chemical reactions in the body
What does a catabolic reaction do?
- takes larger molecules
- breaks them in to smaller ones
- breaks their covalent bonds
- - when molecules break down they are getting energy
- *DOWN-HILL because don't need energy input; in living things you don't wanna put energy into breaking things down
What is the end result of catabolism?
- Creates usable energy
- Usable energy is ATP
- The enzymes recognize to make bonds with the ATP
- The bonds are broken and rebuilt for energy
What does an anabolic reaction do?
- takes small molecules
- make new covalent bonds
- large compounds are built
- Needs energy to make new bonds
What is the end result of anabolism?
- Use of Carbs and Fats
- Use up ATP; endergonic
- Up-hikk because it requires energy input
- Building what cells need
biological catalyst:reduces the energy needed to drive a reaction forward
Characteristics of enzymes
- made of protein
- they are globular; 3D
- very speicific shapes; most maintain b/c it has to collect substrate
- have an active site where the substrate binds
- the compound being altered by the enzyme
- must have a high chemical affinity for the enzyme
lock and key analogy
What is the altered substrate called
- most enzymes are highly specific as they act on only one substrate
- enzymes are often sequential in action; they work together and rely on each other
- 30 some enzymes to break down 1 molecule
- ions that help keep active sites stable or keep enzymes structure stable
- have to have a positive charge b/c substrate are negitive; in order to maintain enzyme shape
- non- protein organic compounds that work with enzymes
- not made of amino acids
- not protein just helping
is so important that keeping the right environment for that shape is part of your homeostatic mechanisms
How can pH influence enzyme shape
- *Messing with pH influences the 3D structure of the enzymes
- if the pH is low there are too many hydrogen ions and the enzyme will loose its shape
- if the pH is high there is not enough hydrogen ions and the enzyme will loose its shape
How can temperature influence enzyme shape
- if temp is to high it denatures the enzyme
- the cold stops kinetic energy of the substrate of going to the enzyme
because the enzymes aren't able to go back to the same shape we can bring people back from cold but its harder to bring them back from heat
When you break down the trigylcerides that were in the French fries you had for lunch, what type of reaction is that?
removal of electrons or removal of a hydrogen atom
- addition of electrons or addition of hydrogen
- add negitive energy
Oxidation and reduction in living systems
- mant enzymes use ox/ red reactions to break carbon- carbon bonds and to drive the formation of ATP
- -the enzymes never have a one step reaction
- -need co-enzymes that will hold the hydrogen for the reaction
How many electrons is hydrogen
What is an example of oxidation/ reduction reaction?
- *NAD+ is the oxidized form- know b/c it have a postive
- *NADH is the reduced- have electron in H
How often is oxidation and reduction used?
must be used over and over
General formula for cell respiration
- series of oxidation and reduction
- the oxygen is reduced to water with the hydrogen from the glucose
What happens during cell respirations?
- A catabolic reaction
- A series of oxidation/ reduction reactions
- Glucose is more reduced than the ned product of CO2You oxidize glucose to carbon dioxide and you reduce oxygen to water
- the energy in ATP we use to build things up
Main pathways for cell respiration
- aerobic respiration
anaerobic event- doesn't need oxygen
includes the Krebs cycle (AKA citric acid cycle) and the ETS: electron transport system
Formula for Glycolysis
Glucose+ NAD's+ 2 ADP+ 2 P+ 2 ATP= pyruvic acid+ NADH's + 4 ATP
What happens during glycolysis?
- 1.partial oxidation of glucose
- 2.yields an intermediate (more we are going to do) pyruvic acid that must be used or excreted as waste
- 3.it has created some reduced electron carries (NADH)
- 4.Oxygen is not used
- 5. Note:pyruvate is the same as pyruvic acid
Linking step to the Krebs cycle
- 1.Oxidized pyrubic acid to acetyl
- 2.Oxidation of the end carbon of pyruvic acid yields CO2 as waste; the oxidation of CO2 forces it to leave the rest of the compound
- 3.Aceyly is "small" so add a co-enzyme to yield Acetyl CoA
What is CoA?
- CoA acts like a "label" so enzymes in Krebs can find acetyl
- CoA is recycled
What is needed to yeild NADH's?
we need NAD+ (the oxidized form) for glycolysis to yield NADH
Describe the function of electron carries.
Get reduced in the reaction
When are electron carriers oxidized?
in the ETS
What are electron carries reduced?
When glucose is oxidized
The Krebs Cycle
- 1. Enzyme sequence that ends where is begins
- 2. Requires a carrier molecule (oxaloacetic acid) that can accept acetyl
- 3.Remaining carbons from glucose are completely oxidized to CO24. Reduction yield NADH's
- 5.Left side restores the carrier to orginial form
- 6.Left side has more ox/red's and yields reduced electron carries
- **DON'T say right side oxidizes and light side reduces-BOTH oxidize**
- *picture in notes
What have you got at the end of Krebs?
- enzyme sequence ends where it started
- CO2, Reduced electron carriers
ETS: electron transport system
- 1.Series of ox/ red reactions which uses molecules with reactive cneters
- 2.Example: cytochromes with iron as active center
- 3.NADH's drop off their e's and H+ here
- 4.This frees the NAD+ to return to the toerh pathways and be recycled
- 5.As electrons are past, the protons are being pushed into the mitochondrial space from which there is only one exit6.Chemiosmotic force "pumps" protons into intermembrane space
- 7.A strong electrochemical gradient is formed8.Oxygen is the terminal receptor in ETS and it gets the e's from the final cytochrome
- 9.As the H+ pass through the ATP through oxidative phosphorylation
- 10.Finally have generated alot of usable energy in the form of ATP
- *picture in notes
Reduction of oxygen yields?
The substrate of glycolysis is
Pyruvic acid is the end product of
NAD+ is substrate for
it is not a substrate at all; it is a coenzyme
Cytochromes function is to
- pass electrons to each other until they finally pass it to oxygen
- its a downhill reaction
when pyruvic acid is the "end of the road" whether due to lack of oxygen or lack of further enzymes in the organisms
What is the fate of pyruvic acid
- 1.Glycolysis requires the oxidized form of NAD+
- 2.At the end of glycolysis; you are stuck with reduced NADH's with no where to go
- 3.Need to oxidize the carries back to the NAD+ state
- 4.Pyruvic acid is a waste; can be reduced while NADH is oxidized
- 5.In humans product would be lactic acid
- 6.Remove as quickly as possible and take to liver
- 7.Used in gluconeogenesis
- *picture in notes
Catabolic reaction to make glucose
break down of starch (in food) or glyogen (stored energy)
Break down of triglycerides
What happens in Beta oxidation
- oxidize fatty acid chains by breaking chain into acetyl's
- -can be twice the amount of ATP from fats than carbohydrates
- takes several oxidations to do this
- yeilds many NADH's
Beta oxidation marks acetyl's with CoA and feeds them into?
the Krebs cycle
What was the "theory" behind the Atkins's diet?
telling you body you have diabetes; you burn fat not carbs
What is the break down of protein into and used for?
break down of proteins into AA's and use as fuel
What does the break down of proteins into AA's used for?
Where is the location at?
Requires deamination of AA's: liver is location
Where do essential amino acids come from?
you get them from diet
What does glycogenesis?
glycogen from glucose
What does the glucose skeleton make?
What does lipogenesis form?
fatty acids from acetyl that came from glucose
How effective are amino acids supplements?
not effective- dont work unless you have a genetic disease
What are the dangerous side effects of supplements?
challenges the liver and kidneys
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